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毕业论文:塑料垃圾影响环境的问题分析

铃木大卫在他的日记中写道:“全球每年生产的塑料中有10%最终流入海洋。70%的塑料会进入海底,在那里它很可能永远不会降解”(Sutton, & Turner, 2012)如果塑料被燃烧,它只会增加污染,因为不可能完全摧毁它。这种情况导致全球气候变化,自然平衡被打破。“研究人员发现,塑料碎片像海绵一样吸收有毒化学物质,吸收的多氯联苯和二恶英等致命化合物的浓度(比周围的水)高100万倍”(Sutton, & Turner, 2012)。塑料约占全球2.7亿吨汽油和石油。这样做是为了满足全世界塑料的需求。使用后,塑料垃圾被倾倒在海洋和垃圾填埋场,这反过来污染了全球环境。

设计可以在解决环境问题上发挥非常重要的作用,如塑料垃圾。塑料垃圾是人们使用资源效率低下的结果。所以通过设计,它帮助人们更有效地利用这些资源。自然资源的利用可以通过设计来改变。设计可以节省时间、精力和自然资源。它还可以帮助开发产生更少废物的包装。当塑料袋被丢弃在露天环境中时,它们会产生危险的化学物质。从塑料中暴露出来的化学物质可以通过食物和水摄入。这种化学废物也可以通过空气污染被吸入。因此,我们需要关注如何使用其他材料来替代塑料,以减少塑料的浪费。

随着这个大的环境问题,人们越来越意识到他们的环境。最近,为了解决塑料购物袋的问题,人们提出了再利用购物袋的想法。为了实现这一目标,首先要做的是减少塑料袋的使用。“全世界都越来越关注过度使用塑料袋带来的问题。许多国家现在已经对塑料袋的生产或分销实施了控制”(阿德尔曼,2010)。如果人们开始使用可重复使用的购物袋,塑料袋的使用将会减少。用织物制成的袋子更耐用,可重复使用,材料更环保。事实上,在过去的十年里,随着人们环保意识的提高,环保袋的市场也在不断扩大。方便的环保袋可以随身携带,即使是在旅行中。可重复使用的袋子可以很容易地与其他行李放在一起,也有助于减少塑料袋的使用。然而,做到这一点从来就不容易。这些行动并没有对这种情况产生非常有效的影响。“困难在于激励人们购买它们,然后把它们带到商店”(Andrew, 2015)。人与可重复使用的购物袋之间缺乏联系。有一些障碍阻止人们使用它们,使塑料购物袋更方便。人们有消费习惯。人们很容易忘记带环保袋;他们习惯使用一次性购物袋(Andrew, 2015)。没有一个有组织的系统来告诉人们如何去做。因此,尽管人们意识到保护环境的重要性,但他们仍然不能轻易地养成环保的习惯。对于布袋,虽然有些人喜欢用,但他们总是忘记,所以他们最终得到一个塑料袋。最重要的是,人们需要一个系统来组织他们使用购物袋和改变习惯的想法。

毕业论文:塑料垃圾影响环境的问题分析

As David Suzuki states in his journal, “10% of the plastic produced every year worldwide winds up in the ocean. 70% of which finds its way to the ocean floor, where it will likely never degrade” (Sutton, & Turner, 2012) If the plastic is burnt, it only increases the pollution as it is not possible to destroy it completely. This situation causes the global climate change and the natural balance is broken down. “Researchers have found that plastic debris acts like a sponge for toxic chemicals, soaking up a million fold greater concentration (than surrounding water) of such deadly compounds as PCBs and DDE” (Sutton, & Turner, 2012). The plastic accounts about 270 million tons of gasoline and oil globally. This is done in order to meet the demand of the plastic all over the world. After the use, the plastic waste is dumped in the oceans and landfills, which in turn pollutes the global environment.
Design can play a very important role in addressing environmental issue such as plastic waste. Plastic waste is a result of people using resources inefficiently. So through design it helps people to utilize these resources more efficiently. The use of natural resources can be changed through designing. Designs can save time, energy, and natural resources. It can also help in developing the packaging that produce less waste. Plastic bags have the ability to produce dangerous chemical, when they are discarded in the open environment. Chemical exposure from plastics can be ingested through food and water. This chemical waste can also be inhaled through air contamination. So we need to focus on how to use other materials to replace plastics to reduce the plastic waster.
With this big environmental issue, people are becoming more aware towards their environment. Recently, in order to resolve the issue of plastic shopping bag, people came up with ideas of reusing shopping bags. For this goal the first thing that needs to be done is to reduce the use of plastic bags. “The growing concern for problems associated with excessive use of plastic bags is worldwide. Many countries have now placed controls on plastic bag manufacturing or distribution” (Adelman, 2010). If people start using the reusable shopping bags, the use of plastic bags will decrease. The bags prepared with fabric are more durable, reusable, and the material is more environmentally friendly. Actually, in the past decade, as people’s realization of protecting environment, the market of reusable bags has been increased. The handy reusable bags can be carried anywhere, even while travelling. The reusable bags can be easily accommodated with other luggage and also helps in discouraging the use of plastic bags. However, it was never been easy to do that. These actions didn’t have a very efficient influence to this situation. “The difficulty is motivating people to buy them and then bring them to the store” (Andrew, 2015). There is a lack of connection between people and reusable shopping bag. There are obstacles that stop people from using them and make the plastic shopping bag more convenient. People have consumption habits. It is very easy for people to forget to bring reusable bags; and they were used to use once-use shopping bag (Andrew, 2015). There is not an organized system to tell people how to do that. So, although people realize the importance of saving the environment, still they could not easily adopt environmental friendly habits. For the fabric bags, although some people would like to use them, they always forget them so they finally end up getting a plastic bag. The most important thing is that people require a system to organize their ideas of using shopping bags and changing habits.