本篇代寫essay-《對不可抗辯事由的抗辯》講了尼爾•波茲曼(Neil Postman)在《爲不可辯護辯護》(Against the Indefensible)一文中敦促所有人，尤其是學生、教育工作者和普通人，拒絕強加於意識形態之上的觀念，這些觀念已成爲所有話語的主導思想。本篇代寫essay由美國第一論文 Assignment First輔導網整理，供大家參考閱讀。
Summary of the article “Defending against the indefensible”
In the article Defending Against the Indefensible, Neil Postman urges everyone, especially the students, educators and ordinary people to reject the imposed notions attached to ideologies that become dominant thoughts of all discourse. Postman is instrumental, rather precise in his approach in identifying the principles that are imposed on the ones who are not taught the means of searching alternative. He asserts that when one readily assumes and accepts the answers coming from a definer and articulator, there is less room for growth since the deficiency of language propels a deficient understanding of the intent behind the message. Therefore, he suggests that everyone must refrain from assuming and accepting definitions, but instead strive to search alternatives, which could possibly give better answers. Thus, Postman speaks of defending against the indefensible, which is the manufactured product of thought that is consistently imposed, foisted and encouraged to be assumed inevitable by the mainstream users of a particular language.
Postman tries to support his argument with seven ideas that when implemented, it can help the individual, mainly students and educators to transcend their externally-influenced ideologies and thought process. The first idea is that all definitions are mere tools of conveying a particular understanding of the subject and not something that is omnipotent. Hence, Postman (22) says “they fail to grasp that a definition is not a manifestation of nature but merely and always an instrument for helping us to achieve our purposes”. This indicates that no definition, however old and revered, has the authority of restricting beliefs and thought expansion. Secondly, Postman contends that questions are really a labour of art, and the answers that originate almost always equate with the quality of the question. Hence, question making must be made a principle teaching for students. Postman gives the third idea that simple words are more difficult to understand when used within a particular context and not complex words whose meaning remains more or less similar. Hence, teaching the implying assumptions of the words in contextual settings enhances the students’ questioning technique. Seneca and Hine (48) and Ram and Moorman (77) second this opinion, who urge students to strive to liberate from the shackles of imposed learning.