Assignment First

代寫Essay:生態系統服務付費的介紹分析

和鼓勵農民或土地所有者改進土地管理實踐。它被定義為“通過向自願提供者提供有條件的付款而額外提供環境服務的透明系統”。從20世紀90年代到現在,世界各地已經實施了數百個PES項目,取得了不同程度的成功。

代寫Essay:生態系統服務付費的介紹分析

甚至在2005年初,就像2005年千年生態系統評估所看到的那樣,生態系統評估在全球範圍內實施。但是,它們沒有達到相同報告中所觀察到的所需結果。例如,千年評估能夠確立以下內容。
首先,在全球範圍內,雖然一些生態系統服務,例如糧食生產有所增加,但大多數生態系統服務已經退化。2011年發表的英國國家生態系統評估報告(NEA)強調,在英國8種廣泛的陸生和水生生境類型中所觀察到的服務範圍沒有達到標準。報告稱,大約30%的人在減少。許多自然生態系統處於退化或退化狀態,往往是由於生境範圍或條件長期下降的結果。

代寫Essay:生態系統服務付費的介紹分析

In order to maintenance and provide a sustainable ecosystem services, Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) is used as a kind of market instruments to compensate and encourage farmers or landowners to improve land management practices . It has been defined as “a transparent system for the additional provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers” . From 1990s to the present, hundreds of PES programs have been implemented around the world with varying levels of success.

代寫Essay:生態系統服務付費的介紹分析

Even in early 2005, the PES was being implemented globally as was seen in the 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, they were not achieving the needed results as observed in the same reports. For instance, the Millennium assessment was able to establish the following.
Firstly, on a global scale, whilst some ecosystem services such as food production had increased, the majority of ecosystem services had been degraded. A latter UK National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA) that was published in 2011 emphasized that the range of services as was observed in the case of eight broad terrestrial and aquatic habitat types in the United Kingdom were not performing up to mark. It was established in the report that around 30 percent were in decline. Many of the natural ecosystems were in a reduced or degraded state, often as a consequence of long-term declines in habitat extent or condition.