Assignment First


购买者的议价能力是由上文提到的低切换成本因素支撑的,这也是苹果必须考虑的关键因素(Gershon 2013)。在这一力量中,基本上有两点需要进一步分析:买方拥有个人议价能力,以及集体议价能力。因为对于像苹果这样的大公司来说,失去任何一个消费者带来的收入都是非常低的,甚至可以忽略不计;因此,个人议价能力作为一种弱的力量。然而,大规模消费者叛逃到代表消费者集体市场议价能力的竞争对手的可能性被认为是一股强大的力量(Chanda 2005)。苹果公司在研发上不断投入巨额资金,遇到了这种强大的力量;通过建立重要的品牌忠诚度,最后通过开发独特的新产品,如Apple Watch和Apple Pay。在这一领域的竞争中,苹果非常成功,因为它建立了一个庞大的客户群,这个客户群不会考虑放弃iphone,转而购买任何其他类型的智能手机。

苹果的市场份额相对较低,可能受到新进入者的威胁(Chanda 2005)。造成这种情况的原因有两个基本因素:一是为自己建立一个品牌所付出的高昂成本,另一个是在技术工业中建立一个公司所付出的极高成本。任何新进入智能手机或个人电脑市场的企业都需要大量资金。巨大的资金被用于其研发团队和制造上,甚至在进入市场之前就开发自己的产品组合,开始产生收入(Gershon 2013)。已经确定的竞争(存在于苹果公司和已经建立良好并规模巨大的主要竞争对手之间)将由行业的新进入者来面对。在一个行业中,建立一个以识别为目的的品牌名称是次要的挑战,已经有很多公司,如谷歌,苹果和亚马逊,在品牌方面有很强的识别能力。

很有可能一家新公司最终能够挑战苹果在业内的地位,也许是一家获得了政府(Flores 2012)一连串财务支持的中国公司。然而,这种竞争对手在不久的将来出现的可能性非常低。然而,通过开发新产品和建立品牌忠诚度,苹果继续加强其在市场上的竞争地位是至关重要的,从而使任何可能的新进入者在竞争中处于巨大的劣势。因此,可以说,苹果公司在该行业没有面临任何新进入者的直接威胁,这可能对其市场份额和地位产生重大影响。


The bargaining power of buyers is supported by the element of the low switching cost referred above and is regarded as the key factor which must be taken into consideration by Apple (Gershon 2013). Within this force, there are basically two points which need further analysis: the buyer which holds an individual power of bargaining and moreover the collective power of bargaining. Since the loss of any one consumer presents a very low or negligible amount of revenue for a big firm like Apple; hence the individual bargaining power acts as a weak force. However, the possibility of mass consumer defections to a competitor which represents the collective marketplace bargaining power of the consumers is regarded as a strong force (Chanda 2005). This strong force is encountered by Apple by making huge capital expenditures in Research and Development on a continuous basis; by building significant brand loyalty and lastly by developing unique and new products like Apple Watch and Apple Pay. In this area of competition, Apple has been very successful by establishment of a huge base of customer which would not think of giving up its iPhones for any other kind of smartphones.
The market share of Apple which could be threatened by a new entrant in the market place is relatively low (Chanda 2005). There are two basic factors which contribute to this: the high cost associated with the establishment of a brand name to itself and also the extremely high cost which is linked with the establishment of a firm in the technology industry. A massive amount of capital is required by any new entrant to the marketplace of smartphones or personal computing. The huge capital is used to expend on its Research and Development team and also on the manufacturing so as to develop its own portfolio of products even before entering the market to start generating revenues (Gershon 2013). The already identified competition (which is present amongst Apple and the major competitors who are already well-established and huge) would be faced by the new entrants in the industry. Establishment of brand name for the purpose of recognition in an industry is the secondary challenge which already has many firms like Google, Apple and Amazon which has a strong recognition in terms of brand.
It is very much possible that a new firm might be able to eventually challenge the position of Apple within the industry, maybe a Chinese company which has a string financial support from the government (Flores 2012). However, the likelihood of such a competitor arising is very low in the immediate future. Yet, by means of new product development and building brand loyalty, it is crucial that Apple continues to strengthen its competitive position in the market so as to place any possible new entrant to the industry at a huge disadvantage in terms of competition. Thus, it could be said that Apple Inc. does not face any immediate threat in terms of any new entrant in the industry which could have a significant impact on its market share and position.