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代写招聘:组织管理宽松规范和不确定性的回避

宽松的规范较弱,对越轨行为的容忍度较高。在紧密耦合的组织中,主管确切地知道所有员工在做什么,管理人员可以根据中心战略协调不同部门的所有活动。在松散耦合的组织中,员工有更多的自主权,不同的部门之间可能没有太多的协调。许多组织在纸面上紧密耦合,但在实践中松散耦合。任何组织的员工都倾向于抵制或试图回避对他们进行过于严密的监督。例如,会计部门的员工可能在上司的监督下完美地遵循程序,但在上司不在时却完全无视规则。有些员工拥有经理不太了解的专业技能,无法对其进行详细的监督,比如维护某种设备或使用某种软件的能力。管理人员有时会发现,在实践中允许更松散的结构来保持组织的运行更为方便。

代写招聘:组织管理宽松规范和不确定性的回避

回避的不确定性是对不确定性和模糊性的容忍。从组织的角度来看,它指的是与工作相关的规则、规章和标准操作程序。管理者如何期望下属在书面同意中遵守指令,包括明确的工作要求,体现了高不确定性规避的运作。低不确定性规避具有较高的灵活性和创新性。铂尔曼的运作基于高度不确定性的回避方法,职位描述被精确地调整,任务根据员工的职位头衔被清晰地定义。Baker & Carson(2011)认为,在组织文化中具有高度回避不确定性的高管,会寻求对动态环境的战略解决方案响应,以减少风险机会和可能导致威胁局面的原因。

代写招聘:组织管理宽松规范和不确定性的回避

Loose have weak norms and high in tolerance for deviant behaviour. In tightly coupled organizations, supervisors know exactly what all their employees are doing and management can coordinate all the activities of different departments according to a central strategy. In loosely coupled organizations, employees have more autonomy and different departments may operate without much coordination between each other. Many organizations are tightly coupled on paper but loosely coupled in practice. Employees at any organization tend to push back or try to circumvent attempts to supervise them too closely . For instance, employees at an accounting office might follow procedures perfectly when their supervisor is watching, but disregard the rules entirely when he is out. Some employees have specialized skills that the manager doesn’t understand well enough to supervise in detail, such as the ability to maintain a certain piece of equipment or use a certain kind of software. Managers sometimes find it more convenient to allow a looser structure in practice to keep the organization running.

代写招聘:组织管理宽松规范和不确定性的回避

organisation point of view, it refers to the work related rules, regulation and standard operating procedure . How managers expect subordinates to follow the instructions including the precise job requirements in a written consent demonstrates the operation of high uncertainty avoidance. While low uncertainty avoidance has higher in flexibility and innovation. Pullman operates base on a high uncertainty of avoidance approach, job descriptions are precisely adapted and tasks are clearly defined based on the employee job title. Baker & Carson (2011) suggests that executives engaging in high uncertainty of avoidance in organisational culture seek strategic solution responses to dynamic environment to reduce the risk chances and likely cause of threatening situation.