用于乳品废弃物处理的最有效的模型是VSB模型。这是因为这类模型中的水在处理过程中不暴露于表面;接触病原体的风险极小。此外，VSB更有效，因为它不提供蚊子和其他媒介可能生活的栖息地。传统的真空合成孔径管由粘土制成的进口管和砂砾制成的出口管组成。因此，这类湿地的养护成本也低得多(Rousseau et al.， 2004)。营养沉床的另一个好处是，它可以帮助去除主要的废水污染物和自由水面湿地。在水力利用率最低的床层中，去除效果最好。此外，在人类暴露率方面，营养性沉床已被证明比自由水面湿地提供了大量的改善。VSB的水保持在地表以下，有助于消除人类、动物和昆虫媒介的接触。
The most efficient model which can be used for the treatment of the dairy wastes is the VSB model. This is because water in this type of model is not exposed to the surface during the process of treatment; there is a minimal risk of exposure to pathogen. In addition to this the VSB is more efficient as they do not provide the habitat where mosquitoes and other vectors may live. A conventional VSB consists of the inlet piping which is made from clay and an outlet piping which is made from the gravel. Therefore, the cost of maintenance of these kinds of wetlands is also much lower (Rousseau et al., 2004). Another benefit of Vegetative Submerged bed is that it can be helpful in the removal of the primary wastewater contaminants and also the free water surface wetlands. The best kinds of removals have been observed in the bed which had the lowest hydraulic application rate. Also, with respect to the Human Exposure rate, the Vegetative Submerged Beds has proved to provide a significant amount of improvement over the free water surface wetlands. The water in case of the VSB is kept below the surface which helps in the elimination of the exposures to humans, animals and the insects’ vectors.
One of the major limitations in case of constructed wetlands is that in this the theory can’t be very well understood and is generally unpredictable. These are the wetlands which are simple and are very stable whenever they are properly designed and installed.
Another limitation is that in case of the climates which have colder winters, the bacteria and the plants which may be living in the constructed wetland soil may die. This can lead to the sudden release of nutrient which in turn can impact the local streams as well.