Although, the development of the driverless cars is far, it requires the reliable technology for overcoming many challenges. There are many automakers all over the world who are working towards manufacturing the driverless car with sensors. Intelligent Car Initiative of the European Union is working towards making the extensive use of the micro controllers, sensors and actuators to help the drivers to have an extra eye on the road in order to avoid accidents and mishaps. The way computer technology has been used in the cars to help the drivers and assisting them to find the correct rods and turns, the near future of the technology will definitely experience a shift in the development and advancement of the technology. This advancement will help to overcome many problems that are associated with the autonomous navigation.
Some of the significant issues with autonomous navigation are localization (where am I), Map building (from where I am coming), path Planning (where have to go) and path tracking (how to get on destination?) (Fagnant & ). The sensor technology in the driverless car will provide the complete control to the vehicle and driver will be mere supervisor for the sensors.
The sensors for the driverless cars can be classified in two different types, Active sensors and Passive sensors. This classification is done on the basis of their capability and physical phenomenon they are able to measure by actively probing the environment or by passively perceiving the environment (Yenkanchi, 2016).
Active sensors are mainly those which send the radiations for detecting an object around the vehicle and it also eliminates the noise of emissions. However, the passive sensors are those perceiving the information that is based on the illumination of the environment. Passive sensors are considered to be less expensive in the way of their mechanism. Some of the examples of the active sensors are radar based sensors, laser based sensors and ultrasonic based sensors. One significant example of the passive sensor is camera. Since the autonomous automated cars are the next evolution of the transportation and will increase the safety, driving