Assignment First


联邦储备系统是美国的中央银行。国会于1912年成立该机构,目的是为国家提供安全、灵活和高度稳定的货币和金融体系(Schuck, 2015)。多年来,银行和经济的作用开始扩大。中央银行的三个主要职能包括货币政策、银行监管和金融服务。

公司结构由董事会、联邦储备银行、成员银行、其他存款机构、联邦公开市场委员会和咨询委员会(banks et al., 2011)组成。

为了保护美联储的系统免受短期性质的政治压力,同时从根本上确保问责制,该系统被设置为独立于政府系统(Banks et al., 2011)。这家银行的运作以个人收入为基础,而不是向国会和理事会拨款。国会和理事会成员的任命是交错进行的,任期较长,对日常政治考虑的影响有限。此外,央行在政府工作的角度是,它帮助制定货币政策的目的,以实现通过总统和国会提出的一整套目标(Jaremski et al., 2015)。即使美联储的具体决定不需要总统或行政部门的批准,该系统也需要向国会的权力机构报告,这是导致它成立的原因。从这个角度来看,联邦储备系统可以说具有一种独特的结构,能够提供内部检查和平衡,以确保决策和操作不受系统任何一个组成部分的支配。

最高管理层由董事会控制。他们由7名成员组成,由总统任命,经参议院确认,任期14年,其中副主席和主席由参议院批准,通过总统亲自指定(Banks et al., 2011)。理事会向国会提交的报告包括有关经济状况和货币信贷增长体系目标的运作和半年度报告。主席定期会见财政部长和总统。


The Federal Reserve System is United State based central bank. The congress founded it in the year 1912 for providing the nation with safe, flexible and highly stable system for monetary purpose and finances (Schuck, 2015). Throughout the years, the role of bank and economy has started to expand. The three primary functions of this central bank are inclusive of monetary policies, banking supervisions and finance based services.
The structure of the company consists of board of governors, Federal Reserve banks, and member banks, other depository institutes, federal open market committee and advisory councils (Banks et al., 2011).
For safeguarding the system for Federal Reserve from political pressures of short term nature while making sure accountability fundamentally, the system was set to be such that it is independent within the system of government (Banks et al., 2011). The operations of this bank take place on individual earnings instead of appropriations for congress and Board of Governors as members appointed for staggered, long term with limited influence on daily considerations politically. The central bank furthermore works in the government from the perspective that it helps in formulating policies for monetary purposes to achieve the complete set of goals set forward through the President and Congress (Jaremski et al., 2015). Even though the specific decisions of Federal Reserve do not require approval from President or the executive department, the system needs to report to the authority of Congress which led towards its creation. Federal Reserve System from this perspective can be said to have a unique structure which leads towards providing internal checking and balancing to ensure that the decisions and operations are not dominated through any one component of system.
The top management is held by Board of governors. They consist of 7 members appointed through President and confirmed through Senate for staggered term of 14 years wherein the vice chairman and chairman are designated through the President himself with the approval from senate (Banks et al., 2011). The board of governors report to congress inclusive of operations and semi-annual reports over the economy state and objectives of systems for money and credit growth. Regularly chairman meets with Treasury secretary and President.