Assignment First


营销组合由4个p组成,即产品、价格、地点和促销,并将其作为主要营销策略(Doole and Lowe, 2008)。产品是指任何能够满足市场需求的东西,不仅包括有形的商品,还包括有形的目标、服务、人员、地点、组织、想法或这些实体的组合(Kotler et al., 1996)。

选择Product element作为本研究的研究对象,是因为它是最容易标准化或适应(修改)的营销组合(Hollensen, 2001)。如果一个公司想要获得竞争优势,赢得客户的忠诚,它必须考虑客户的利益,并保持其产品与当地文化的融合(Onkvisit and Shaw, 2004)。一个公司如何成功地运用其营销策略取决于其商业目标和文化差异(Hollensen, 2001)。然而,Onkvisit and Shaw(2004)认为,由于全球市场的品味和需求相似,产品标准化可以使企业在不发生任何必然变化的情况下将产品出口到全球市场。

最新的产品必须适应国家的文化,因此产品标准化更倾向于用于工业产品,而不是消费者的产品和服务(Czinkota和Ronkainen, 1998)。像计算机芯片这样的工业产品是标准化的,因为世界上所有的计算机都能使用。

此外,针对不同的本土需求和需求,各跨国公司都在努力开发出某种融合了地域和文化差异的国际产品,使之被所有国家所接受。然而,这种替代策略的应用仅限于与本土企业文化非常相似的外国文化。在一些全球市场中,由于国内外文化的差异,企业调整营销组合是非常必要的(Czinkota and Ronkainen, 1998)。此外,企业必须决定在多大程度上对产品进行调整,因为如果不能针对特定的市场对产品进行调整,可能会导致问题,最终给企业带来灾难(Douglas and Craig, 1995)。设计、品牌名称、包装和色彩是当地市场和文化产品中必须适应的重要元素(Keengan and Green, 1999)。

此外,上述因素会影响顾客实际购买的东西(Kotler et al., 1996)。因此,对于管理者来说,关注产品包装的偏好和品味是非常重要的。他们还必须牢记消费者的利益,并确保产品标准化或根据消费者的需求和期望进行调整(Kotler et al., 1996)。


Marketing mix consists of 4 Ps, namely, the product, price, place and promotion and sets them as the main marketing strategies (Doole and Lowe, 2008). As for product, it refers to anything that can satisfy the demands of the market, which is not only inclusive of tangible goods, but also includes the physical objectives, services, persons, places, organizations, ideas or mixes of these entities (Kotler et al., 1996).
Product element has been selected for this study because it is the easiest marketing mix to standardize or adapt (modify) (Hollensen, 2001). If a company wants to gain a competitive advantage and win the customer loyalty, it has to consider the benefits of its customers and keep its product integrated with the local culture (Onkvisit and Shaw, 2004). How successful can a company apply its marketing strategy is decided by its business objectives and cultural differences (Hollensen, 2001). However, in the view of Onkvisit and Shaw (2004), owing to the similarities in taste and demands in the global market, product standardization enables a firm to export its products to the global markets without any inevitable changes.
The latest products have to adapt themselves to the country’s culture, and therefore Product standardization prefers to be used in the industrial products rather than the consumer’s products and service (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 1998). Industrial goods such as computer chips are standardized because all computers in the world are able to utilize.
Moreover, in view of different local needs and demands, various multinational corporations strive to develop some kind of international based products integrated with regional and cultural differences so as to make them accepted by all countries. Nevertheless, the application of such alternative strategy is only limited to a foreign culture which bears great similarity to the domestic company culture. In some global markets, owing to the disparate domestic and foreign culture, it is of great necessity for the firms to modify the marketing mix (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 1998). Besides, a firm has to decide to what extent it has to adapt the product, because the failure of its modifying the product to specific markets can cause problems and finally bring disasters for the company (Douglas and Craig, 1995). The design, brand name, packaging and colour are important elements that have to be adapted in a product of the local market and culture (Keengan and Green, 1999).
In addition, the above elements affect what customer will actually buy (Kotler et al., 1996). Therefore, it is significant for managers to show much concern to the preferences and tastes of their product packages. They also have to keep the consumer’s benefits in mind and ensure that the products are standardized or adapted in accordance with the consumer’s needs and expectations (Kotler et al., 1996).