艺术家们试图通过这些艺术作品来理解大脑的功能成像。他想要理解大脑大脑如何在视觉艺术中决定什么是地面，什么是图形。艺术家们试图解释，形状的大小有助于区分地面和人物，因为视觉图像的较小部分往往是人物。这些图像说明，图形/地面组织已经在2D合成中使用。“图形-背景反转被用作一种有意的视觉设计技术，在这种技术中，有意地交换现有图像的前景和背景颜色，以创建新的图像”(Goldreich， & Peterson, 2012)。
Gestalt theory also explains that how people organize all the visual elements in one single group. One of the greatest examples of modern art is the Peter and Paul Vase. This illusion was created by Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin in 1915.
According to the Gestalt’s theory of perception, the objects or images are perceived as figure or the ground. The figure is the focus and ground is related to the background o the image. Peter and Paul vase is the classic example of figure/ground perspective. This image displays a black vase with the white background or the two white faces sitting in a position, where both are facing each other with a black background. Whenever people look towards an image, they set a focus point and a background. The composition of an image is divided in to focus and background and this occurs subconsciously. Thus focus and ground of an image informs about what have to be focused and what could be simply ignored. Perception was something that was more involved in this image than any other thing.
This is a famous perceptual illusion. This figure creates the illusion of a young girl and an old woman. The old woman can be seen looking towards the left, while the girl is looking towards her right shoulder. The image displays the perceptual illusion of figure/ground. This kind of illusion has old history. It was first seen on the German postcard in 1888. The ‘perception’ is the main thing in this illusion as well.
This is another example of ambiguous illusion. This image also has two faces, one of young man and other of an old man. This kind of reversal illusions helps to understand that how brain interpret the static image.
The artists have tried to understand the functional brain imaging through these art works. He wanted to achieve the understanding of the brain that how does brain decides in the visual art that what is ground and what is figure. The artists have tried to explain that sizes of the shapes can help in distinguishing between ground and figure, because smaller parts of the visual image are often figures. These images explain that, figure/ground organizations have been used in a 2D composition. “Figure–ground reversal are used as an intentional visual design technique in which an existing image’s foreground and background colors are purposely swapped to create new images” (Goldreich, & Peterson, 2012)
Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols. According to this theory every image or object has signs and symbols. This theory states that more a person sees, more he understands. If the signs and symbols of an image are understood, then that image becomes more interesting and memorable. The academic study of Semiotics is meant to identify signs of different societies in the world and to explain them. Though, this study has gained popularity recently, but this a very old concept of understanding images. Augustine was the first philosopher from Rome, who proposed the study of signs. According to Augustine, signs were the connection between the culture and nature (Kaplan, 1995). According to the perceptual system, it is always ready for the representation. This image provides the symbolic signs, which means that the image provides the symbolic representation. The faces in the image are seen in white, facing each other may represent intimacy. This illusion states that the reality of the image could only be seen through conscious efforts. The image acquires the definite position of its own. It is meant to create sensory activation or the processing of the brain in the minds of audiences. This image involves potential activity of the brain. The images are aesthetically beautiful and provide the best example of reversal ground. According to the artist himself “One can then state as a fundamental principle: When two fields have a common border, and one is seen as figure and the other as ground, the immediate perceptual experience is characterized by a shaping effect which emerges from the common border of the fields and which operates only on one field or operates more strongly on one than on the other” (Rubin, 1915).