Assignment First

論文編輯:加拿大工會集體談判的格局變化

加拿大工會的密度正面臨顯著下降。加拿大工會的密度從1997年的33.7%下降到2012年的31.5%。這一下降背後的原因是美國不利的勞工政策的溢出效應。這給在立法、政治和法律方面面臨問題的工會帶來了重大挑戰。聯邦保守黨法案(法案C-377)對勞工組織的官員和工會提出了擴大財務報告的要求。經常有人認為,該法案無助於修改雇主與勞工組織工會之間的關系。盡管一些政策制定者認為C-377法案通過引入“工作權”,給加拿大的勞工政策帶來了重大轉變。根據工作權利,工會工人不必成為工會的成員,不論他們從工會得到什麽好處。但是加拿大的司法權使用的是蘭德公司給出的公式,而不是工作權制度。這個公式成為加拿大勞工政策的關鍵原則。它指出,不論雇員是否工會成員,他們都受益於工會的集體談判協定。蘭德公式直接關系到瓦格納提出的多數主義和排他性原則。根據這一原則,構成集體協定組成部分的所有成員都應繳納本聯盟的會費。

美國的工會。美國反對1989年加拿大和美國之間的自由貿易協定和1994年北美自由貿易協定。工會認為,這些貿易安排沒有考慮到工人的權利和需要。這反過來又削弱了加拿大的文化和社會福利措施。自北美自由貿易協定通過以來,勞動者面臨著裁員、公司規模縮小和工作轉移到非工會雇主等後果。加拿大的經濟環境對工人不利,特別是因為聯邦和省政府削減了預算,威脅到公共部門的工人。不過,勞工工會繼續在政治上積極活動,在包括零售商店、銀行和餐館在內的私營服務部門組織起來。

美國的工會。美國反對1989年加拿大和美國之間的自由貿易協定和1994年北美自由貿易協定。工會認為,這些貿易安排沒有考慮到工人的權利和需要。這反過來又削弱了加拿大的文化和社會福利措施。自北美自由貿易協定通過以來,勞動者面臨著裁員、公司規模縮小和工作轉移到非工會雇主等後果。加拿大的經濟環境對工人不利,特別是因為聯邦和省政府削減了預算,威脅到公共部門的工人。不過,勞工工會繼續在政治上積極活動,在包括零售商店、銀行和餐館在內的私營服務部門組織起來。

論文編輯:加拿大工會集體談判的格局變化

The densities of unions in Canada are facing a significant decline. The density of unions in Canada has witnessed a decline to 31.5% in 2012 from 33.7% in 1997. The reason behind this decline is the spill over effects of unfavourable labour policies in US. This imposed a major challenge for the unions who faced issues at legislative front, political front and jurisprudential front. The Bill of federal Conservative (Bill C-377) imposed requirements of expanded financial reporting on the officers and unions of labour organisations. It was often argued that the bill did not help in modifying the relationship between employers and unions of labour organization. Although some policy makers argued that Bill C-377 brought a major shift in relation to labour policy in Canada by introducing the ‘right to work’. According to the right to work, union workers were not required to become the members of the union irrespective of the benefits they received from being part of the union. But the jurisdiction in Canada used the formula given by Rand instead of the right to work system. This formula became the key tenet of the labour policy of Canada. It stated that whether the employees are members of the union or not, they benefit from the collective bargaining agreement of the labour union. The Rand formula directly relates to the principles of majoritarianism and exclusivity given by Wagner. According to this principle, all the members forming an integral part of the collective agreement should contribute to the dues of the union.

The union in U.S opposed the free trade agreement (FTA) of 1989 between Canada and United States and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of 1994. In the view of the unions, these trade arrangements did not take into account the rights and needs of the workers. This in turn weakened the cultural and social welfare measures in Canada. Since the time NAFTA was adopted, labours faced the consequences in terms of employee layoff, downsizing of the firm, and job transfers out to non-union employers. The economic environment in Canada was not friendly to the labours especially because the federal and provincial government had introduced cuts in the budget which threatened the workers in the public sector. Nevertheless, the unionization of labour continued to be active politically by organizing themselves in the private service sector including retail stores, banks and restaurants.

In addition to this, the Bill C-377 was not itself the legislation on right to work as it did not suggest to modify the approach of collecting dues of the union. This can be easily understood through the following example: Daniel Kelly, the president of the Federation of Independent business of Canada propounded in a meeting on concerning the bill – If a member of my association at any time feels that the spending of the association is not appropriate or has doubts about the channelizing of funds, then the member can quit as and when he or she feels. The main idea was that such associations should have completely voluntary membership fees.