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论文翻译:马克思的观点和洛克劳动价值论的分析

对马克思来说,正如《共产党宣言》所表达的,废除私有财产所有权是他提出的理论的一个关键因素。在这里,财产所有权并不仅仅意味着获得一块土地供私人使用或拥有一所住房,更重要的是,它属于一个经济中的全面生产手段。对马克思来说,这是一种不平衡,甚至在封建时代,这种不平衡在任何时代都是普遍存在的,这种不平等或不平衡只能通过革命来解决。马克思认为,私有财产问题集中在人类社会的大多数弊病中,这表明财富分配不足。马克思把人看作是纯粹的社会人,他拒绝接受这样一种观点,即人们服从于由成文宪法所界定的法律权力,而成文宪法被认为是凌驾于人民意志之上的。

然而,从马克思和洛克所提出的观点中提取他们那个时代的理论,并不能真正对他们的观点进行比较。约翰·洛克是17世纪的一位哲学家,他在工业革命开始前就提出了他的著作。而马克思则是在工业革命给社会带来巨变的时候开始写作的。无论在哪个时代,洛克在19世纪的社会主义者和自由主义者中广受欢迎,这为定义财产权的社会特征奠定了理论基础,因为洛克认为财产权是个人自由的一个重要方面。与洛克相反,马克思认为私有财产的废除是实现个人自由的主要障碍。恩格斯的著作在比较洛克和马克思的理想时也做出了重要的贡献,因为他的理论离不开马克思的理论。根据马克思的观点,一个人必须拥有财产才能保留所有权。他肯定所有其他权利都必须理解为服从于拥有财产的权利。这种平等的概念是一种将不平等行为合法化的权利。

For Marx, as conveyed in “The Communist Manifesto” the abolishment of possession of private property is a crucial element to the theories propounded by him. Ownership of property here does not simply mean acquiring a piece of land for private use or taking possession of a home, but more significantly it pertains to the means of overall production in an economy. For Marx, this was an imbalance that prevailed in all times even back in feudal days, and this inequality or imbalance could be done away with nothing but a revolution. Marx suggested that the issue of private property was concentrated in most of the ills of the human society indicating at the inadequate wealth distribution. Marx sees humans as purely social beings, and he rejects the idea where people are subject to the power of law defined by the written Constitution which is considered superior to the will of people.
However, one cannot really draw a comparison in the views propounded by Marx and Locke by extracting the theories given by them from their time. John Locke was a philosopher in the 17th century who proposed his work before the beginning of industrial revolution. While Marx, on the other hand, started writing when there was a drastic change in the society brought about by industrial revolution. Regardless of the time though, popularity of Locke among the 19th century socialists and liberals laid the theoretical means for defining the social character of property rights as Locke considered it a significant aspect of individual freedom. Contrary to Locke, for Marx the private property abolition acts as a major obstruction in attaining freedom for individuals. Also, writings by Engels’ make a significant contribution while making a comparison between ideals of Locke and Marx, as his theory cannot be separated from that of Marx’s. According to Marx, one must possess property in order to retain its ownership right. He affirms that all other rights must be understood as submissive to the right to own property. This notion of equality is a right to legalise the practice of inequality.

论文翻译:马克思的观点和洛克劳动价值论的分析

洛克在提出劳动价值论的同时,也为自然状态和私有财产的所有权奠定了道德基础。劳动价值论帮助洛克证明了每个人都有对产品的所有权,而不是对生产资料的所有权。洛克认为,在一块土地上种植一种作物,或者仅仅从树上摘果子,并不代表土地或树的所有权。它只根据一个人的劳动成果来证明他的所有权是正当的。这成为马克思论证资本主义制度中劳动剥削理论的一个主要组成部分。

马克思试图传达的另一个观点是,他不是在宣扬国家本身的无法无天或混乱,而是他不愿向政府吐露自己的想法,并对与政府有关的阶级不平等问题保持警惕。他主张政府不是普通人的一部分,而是受到上层阶级或统治精英的启发,从而暗示了基于阶级的不公平实践。洛克主张完全自由的状态可以直接与自然状态相联系,其中拥有财产的代理人受自然法则的约束,而不依赖于任何其他实体的共同意志。

理性法则或自然法则指出,社会中所有的个体都受到平等的对待,不依赖他人。洛克认为,人民或公民拥有获得和拥有财产的权利,如果他们有这样做的手段。在他看来,一个良好的社会和政府的关键是由财产所有权来定义(马克思,1999)。

Locke formulated the labour theory of value while initiating a moral ground for the state of nature and ownership of private property. The labour theory of value helped Locke to prove that each person has a right to ownership of the product and not on the means of the production. According to Locke, by cultivating a crop on a piece of land or just by picking fruit from a tree does not offer ownership of the land or the tree. It justifies the ownership of a person only on the product of his labour. This became a main component of the theory developed by Marx in demonstrating the exploitation of labour in a capitalist system.

Another idea that Marx was trying to convey was that he was not preaching lawlessness or disorder in the state itself, but he was unwilling to confide in the government and was wary of problem of class inequity that was associated with the government. He advocated that the government was not a part of ordinary people but was inspired by the upper class or ruling elite, thus hinting at the practice of inequity based on class. Locke preaches the idea that state of perfect freedom can be directly related to state of nature, wherein agents who possess property are bound by the law of nature without depending on the general will of any other entity.
The law of reason or the law of nature states that all the individuals in a society are treated equally and are not dependent on others. Locke believed that the people or citizens possessed the right to acquire and own a property if they had the means to do so. According to him, key to a good society and government is defined by the ownership of property (Marx, 1999).