惩罚是第二方面的行为类似于强化，但完全相反(Madzharov et al.， 2015)。在这种情况下，个体选择做一些考虑行为的事情。通常情况下，他们发现这种行为的结果是没有成效的，反而带来了不好的结果。因此，个体在类似的活动中重复这种行为的可能性大大降低，并且个体不会执行任何与之类似的行为，即改变的行为。
It is to be taken into consideration that the reinforcement of negative nature is extremely different that the concept of punishment. An example of the reinforcement of negative nature can be give through an incident wherein an individual makes a phone call for the purpose of sale, and the person starts to pressurize the receiver for making a purchase of something that is not desired by the receiver which is aversive stimulus. However, the receiver ultimately agreed to make a purchase which is changed behaviour and the sales individual leave the receiver alone wherein the aversive stimulus is removed due to the behavioural consequences.
Punishment is second aspect of the behaviour similar to the reinforcement but completely opposite (Madzharov et al., 2015). Within this an individual chooses to do something considering the behaviour. Often it happens that they discover the result of that act is not fruitful and instead brought bad result in the end consequence. Hence, the likeliness of the individual to repeat such behaviour in regards to the similar activity is highly reduced and the individual will not perform any activity similar to it which is the changed behaviour.
Usually, marketers’ possess less amount of power for utilization of negative reinforcement or punishment. However, this is viewed in the cases of parking meters. These meters are often placed and utilized for discouraging the customer from occupying the parking space that is valuable (Solomon, 2014). Similarly, the manufacturers of certain products hold the authority of voiding the product warranties if the product is taken to the non-authorized facilities for repair by the customer.