Assignment First

美国毕业论文挂了怎么办

统治政府利用国家支持的媒体传播对导致其灭绝的社区的仇恨,这样的例子比比皆是。纳粹德国没有为反犹太人运动留下任何一种大众传媒手段,1994年的卢旺达种族灭绝是最臭名昭著的,因为它利用“广播电台和报纸进行仇恨宣传,敦促人们“消灭蟑螂”,意思是杀死图西族人。遇难者的名字在广播中被宣读出来”(BBC, 2014)。也许一个坚定而明确的媒体监管政策可以控制这一点,或者也许不是因为政府对自己的人民采取了行动。

政策和法律监管应该从自我监管结束的地方开始。不同国家设立的新闻委员会的作用本质上只是咨询性质的,其调查结果对编辑和媒体平台所有者没有约束力(Cohen-Almagor, 2001)。在缺乏明确的监管政策的情况下,大众传媒只能听凭编辑们随心所欲地推行自己的意识形态,或者自由市场机制,而自由市场机制可能不会对任何意识形态给予足够的关注。当一个媒体机构为了少数既得利益者的利益,为了金钱和/或物质利益而出版内容,这可能会适得其反,对国家和社会不利。

美国毕业论文挂了怎么办

在缺乏适当的管理政策和法律的情况下,一些私人组织,甚至是地区法院和州政府,最终只是在个案的基础上武断地限制了媒体。在更高一级的法院,这些问题还会受到进一步的质疑。尽管这些问题为围绕监管或绝对自由的必要性展开更有见地的辩论提供了空间,但如果没有一种系统性的方法来创建监管框架,它们很少会带来任何改革。

美国毕业论文挂了怎么办

Examples abound where ruling governments used the state-sponsored media to spread hatred against a community leading to their extermination. Nazi Germany did not leave a single means of mass media for anti-Jew campaign, and the Rwanda Genocide of 1994 was the most notorious for using “radio stations and newspapers which broadcast hate propaganda, urging people to “weed out the cockroaches” meaning kill the Tutsis. The names of those to be killed were read out on radio” (BBC, 2014). Perhaps a firm and well defined media regulation policy could have controlled this, or perhaps not because the government had acted against its own people.
Policy and legal regulation should begin where self-regulation ends. The role of Press Councils set up in different countries is only advisory in nature, and its findings are not binding on the editors and media platform owners (Cohen-Almagor, 2001). In the absence of well-defined regulation policies, the mass media are left to the whims of the editors who push their own ideology, or the free market mechanism that might not pay sufficient attention to any ideology. This can boomerang to the disadvantage of the state and society when a media organization goes ahead with publishing content for the sake of driving public opinion for a few vested interests in return for money and/or materialistic favours .

美国毕业论文挂了怎么办

In the absence of proper regulatory policies and laws, several private organizations, and even district courts and state governments end up imposing arbitrary restrictions on media, solely on case-by-case basis. These are further contested in higher courts of law, and though they open up the space for much more informed debate around the need for regulation or absolute freedom, they seldom bring about any reform in the absence of a systematic approach to create a framework for regulation.