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美国查重:专业新闻和数字媒体伦理的演变

数字媒体伦理一直在应对数字化新闻媒体的伦理规范、实践和问题。数字媒体包括数字摄影新闻、博客、社交媒体、公民新闻和在线新闻(Sanders 2009)。它包括对专业新闻工作者必须如何利用这种新媒体来研究和发表新闻的疑问,以及如何利用公民提供的图像或文本。在革命阶段,出现了新的可能性,同时也存在着旧做法的威胁(查德威克2013)。当前的时代不能被认为是例外。与专业新闻相关的经济学一直在苦苦挣扎,因为在线观众正在迁移。新闻编辑室的缩减引起了人们对新闻业未来的担忧。然而,这类担忧一直在推动新闻业内部的实验,比如有关调查新闻的非营利性中心。集中的问题是,当前的媒体伦理在多大程度上限制了适合未来和今天的新闻媒体,即由专业人士和业余人士组成的新闻媒体,它们总是在线的、互动的、即时的(Curran et al. 2012)。这些原则大多是上个世纪以来确立的,源于19世纪后期以来对报纸商业化的客观和职业道德的建构。媒体革命在两个不同的层面造成了伦理上的紧张。

在最初的层面上,在线新闻与传统新闻之间存在着紧张关系。与传统新闻相关的文化,其价值观与在线新闻相关的文化相对,强调出版后纠正、非专业记者、偏袒、透明和即时性(查德威克2013)。在第二个层次上,全球新闻与地方新闻之间存在着紧张关系。有与综合编辑室相关的道德规范,在综合编辑室中有分层的新闻实践。分层新闻已经汇集了多种类型的记者和新闻形式,通过互动聊天和公民新闻的结合,提供了超分析和专业风格的新闻的多媒体产品(Allen and Einar 2009)。新闻编辑室有水平分层和垂直分层。在垂直的意义上,有许多不同的层次与编辑职位相关。

美国查重:专业新闻和数字媒体伦理的演变

Ethics of digital media has been dealing with the distinct norms, practices and problems of ethics over digitalized news media. Digital media is inclusive of digital photojournalism, blogging, social media, citizen journalism and online journalism(Sanders 2009). It is inclusive of doubts regarding how this new media must be used by professional journalism for researching on and publishing stories, along with how there must utilization of images or texts as provided by the citizens. In the phase of revolution, there has been an emergence of new possibilities while there is a threat of old practices(Chadwick 2013). The current era cannot be considered exception. The economics related to professional journalism has been struggling there is migration of audiences online. Newsrooms being shrunken result in creating concerns regarding the future of journalism. However, these types of fears have been prompting experiments within journalism, like non- profit centres regarding journalism of investigation. The centralized question is to what limit the current ethics of media is suitable for the news media of tomorrow and today that is always on, interactive and immediate, a journalism of professionals and amateurs(Curran et al. 2012). Majority of the principles have been established since the last century that originate in constructing the objective and professional ethics related to newspapers of mass commercialization since the later years of 19th century. There has been a creation of ethical tension with the revolution of media over two different levels.
Over the initial level, there lies tension between online journalism and traditional journalism. The culture related to traditional journalism, with the values regarding rubs up, gate- keeping, impartiality, balance, pre- publication verification, and accuracy against the culture related to online journalism laying emphasis on post- publication correction, non- professional journalists, partiality, transparency and immediacy(Chadwick 2013). Over the second level, there lies tension between global journalism and parochial journalism. There are ethics related to integrated newsroom, a newsroom in which there is practicing of layered journalism. Layered journalism has been bringing together a number of categories of journalists and forms of journalism for the production of multi- media offering over analysis and news of professional style in combination with interactive chat and citizen journalism (Allen and Einar 2009). There is layering of newsroom horizontally and vertically. In the vertical sense, there are number of different layers related to editorial positions.