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美国大学申请文书:有关动物实验的话题争议

动物试验可被确定为包括为实验目的而使用动物的方法。它有助于建立对某些变量的控制,这些变量可能对所研究的生物系统产生影响。动物实验方法已被用于各种各样的方法,如测试、育种、毒理学和化妆品测试。在世界上不同的国家,与动物试验有关的做法可能有不同的联系。主要用于动物试验的动物有小鼠、大鼠、鱼类、两栖动物和爬行动物。在当今时代,大量的动物被用于研究目的。据观察,在美国本土,用于测试的动物数量超过了10亿。不同的人、社会和组织对动物试验的程序有不同的看法。

与动物实验相关的话题有很多争议。这是一个被广泛讨论和争论的问题。世界上许多人都有一个论点,他们必须依靠动物来进行测试。动物实验的反对者认为,以这种方式使用动物是一种残忍的、不良的做法,而且没有得到很好的管理。

由于这些措施,动物测试公司被迫改变他们的决定,并在很大程度上寻找其他选择。由于上述原因,社会、道德和政治问题,公司正试图开发越来越多的安全测试技术。这些公司担心,他们可能随时被任何反对动物实验的机构发现,并为此设立航道。除此之外,这些公司正在努力并以快速的步伐帮助生产有效的医疗和化妆品测试技术,这将确保动物不再遭受痛苦。2007年,位于美国的国家研究理事会首次提出了同样的倡议,当时它表示需要通过创造更好的技术来创造与动物试验有关的新方法。最近的一项研究是由Hurel公司完成的,他们帮助创造了一个微型功能,这个功能与三维肝脏培养物的设计有关,这可能允许科学家们进行与肝细胞代谢有关的研究。除此之外,剑桥的威斯研究所也在尝试各种方法,以确保替代对动物进行化学和药物测试的方法。除此之外,还有另一家CeeTox Inc.公司,它将动物实验和一些基于计算机的程序结合起来。这些程序可以通过预测动物的皮肤过敏、急性全身毒性以及内分泌活动,帮助预测特定药物对动物的影响。

美国大学申请文书:有关动物实验的话题争议

Animal testing may be determined to be the method which includes the use of animals for the purpose of experimentation. It helps to establish the control on certain variables which may have an impact on the biological systems studied. Animal testing methods have been used for different kinds of methods such as testing, breeding, toxicology and cosmetic testing. The practice which is related to the animal testing may be differently related in different nations in the world. The animals which are mostly used for the purpose of animal testing include the mice, rats, fishes, amphibians and reptiles. In present times, a large number of animals are being used for the purpose of research. It has been observed that in USA itself the number of animals which are used for testing is over 1 billion. The procedure of animal testing has been viewed differently by different people, societies and organizations.
The topic which is related to animal testing has a number of controversies attached around it. It is something which has been vastly discussed and argued up. Many people in the world have an argument that they have to rely on the use of animals for the purpose of testing. The opponents of the animal testing give the opinion that the use of animals in this manner is something which is cruel, poor practice and is not regulated well.
Because of these measures, the animal testing companies are forced to change their decisions and look considerably for other options. Because of the above mentioned, social, ethical and political issues the companies are trying to develop more and more safety testing techniques. These companies are in the fear that they may be caught anytime by any of the agencies working against animal testing and implement fairways for the same. In addition to this, there companies are making efforts and moving at a fast pace to help in yielding the effective medical and cosmetic testing technologies which will make sure that the animals need not to suffer anymore. The very first initiative for the same had been done in the year 2007, when the National Research Council situated in United Stated expressed the need for the creation of the new methodologies related to the animal testing by creation of better technologies. One of the recent investigations has been done by the Hurel corporations which have helped in creation of the miniature function which is related to the design of the 3D liver cultures which may be permitting the scientists to do the study related to metabolize liver cells. In addition to this, the Wyss Institute in Cambridge is also trying out ways to ensure the replacement of the chemical and drug testing methods on the animals. In addition to this, there has been another company CeeTox Inc. who has combined the tests to be done on the animals with a number of computer based programs. These are the programs which may help in the prediction of the impact of a specific drug on the animals by prediction of their skin allergy, acute systemic toxicity and also the endocrine activities.