创新是变革、改造、改造、革命的过程。每个公司都必须在创新上投资，以面对商业世界的激烈竞争。为了在来自工业巨头的国际竞争和竞争压力下生存，创新是至关重要的(Boons & Ludeke-Freund, 2013)。不同的商业领袖对成功有不同的定义，对一些人来说，成功是金钱奖励的形式，而对另一些人来说，成功意味着对环境和社会产生积极的影响(Schneider & Spieth, 2013)。所有这些积极的变化进一步为企业创造了大量的机会，组织的经验增加了其财富、市场份额、进入新市场的潜力、用更新的改进版本替换过时的技术和环境破坏控制(Morris, 2009)。本篇着重介绍美国代写-阿迪达斯公司采用的创新技术和方法。它分析了创新技术在这些公司的国际业务管理中的贡献。讨论的创新活动包括五个研究领域:商业经济学和国际贸易、产业组织、废物管理、生产规模经济和技术发展。
Adidas AG better stylized as Adidas since 1949, is a German multinational company. It is headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Germany and is the largest manufacturer of sportswear in Europe, being the second largest in the world. It deals in manufacturing and designing of shoes, bags, clothing and other accessories for sports (Hüttner & Brem, 2017). Adidas has been ranked 3rd in the list of “Global 100 most sustainable Corporations” by the Corporate knights’ magazine in January 2015. Innovation is the core of all products designed and manufactured by Adidas and its innovation team concentrates on two main aspects – firstly, the choice of raw materials and secondly their manufacturing. Both these activities influence the quality of products and their impact on environment (Autio et al, 2014).
Strategic Innovations by Adidas and their benefits
The year April 2015 was marked as the year of innovation when Mr. King, CEO of Adidas America, in a partnership with management guru Gary Hamel, formed AGIA- Adidas Group Innovation Academy. This is an online learning platform with eight modules for Adidas employees. Each employee completing these modules would graduate from the AGIA. This drive encourages employees to be more creative and imaginative, to come up with new ideas and create a foundation where innovation is underpinning (Ong, Jambulingam, 2016).
The online advertising firm of Adidas, Avenue A offers an organized box with the most premium running and training products to athletes (Osler, 2004). This online service is the first of its kind in category of athletic apparel and footwear availing these products to athletes directly, at the click of their mouses. With success of Avenue A, Adidas is taking curation to its other businesses as well (Mahdi et al., 2015).
Adidas continuously searches for new methods of manufacturing its products in the most environment friendly manner. In partnership with Parley for the oceans, it has come up with the idea of designing a range of swimwear and footwear from recycled ocean waste (Pal, 2017). For this, the company is investing massively in the research of oceanic waste and feedback from athletes on the products developed from the same.
Adidas is also leading the research project Sport Infinity, funded by the European Commission. This project brings together a variety of academic and industry experts, to combine products from excess industrial waste (materials) of other companies. For example, carbon left out from aircraft manufacturing would be recycled to produce fibre for sport shoes, which can be recycled again to manufacture some other products (Pal, 2017). Adidas aims to produce products which are biodegradable, recyclable, and zero waste producing.
The Dry Dye technology by Adidas, reduces the use of water, energy and chemicals consumed in the process of dying by 50%. With a full line of Dry Dye fabric available in the market, Adidas has managed to save 25 million litres of water, otherwise wasted in the dyeing process (Pal, 2017). The environmental benefits from these strategies are:
50% less material waste and fewer toxic emissions due to less use of glue
Avoiding the use of oil based plastic helps in reduction of carbon emissions, as thinner/lighter materials lead to less waste, hence lesser embedded carbon.