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美国代写论文:约翰·戴对“阿舍拉”的观点讨论

约翰·戴在1986年提出,在旧约中“阿舍拉”既指女神,也指邪教对象。戴的研究集中在阿舍拉,因为她存在于希伯来圣经和西北闪族文学。他还提到一些阿卡德人的楔形文字文本,有参考的一个女神呢? ratum, ? irat, ? irta和其他相关的拼写。他研究了用来表示神或女神的不同词语,主要集中在女神阿舍拉身上。除了这个研究,他还关注了女神的肖像表现,主要是关于亚舍拉。

和Dever一样,Day也认识到了Ajrud和el-Qom铭文中所有格后缀的语言问题。因此他拒绝了阿舍拉在文中被称为女神的观点。根据Day,主要的事情是Asherah被表示为邪教对象(Day, 1986,392)。他的目的在旧约中得到了很好的保存。然而,他认为“在《OT》中,女神阿舍拉(Asherah)的象征出现在耶和华祭坛旁,很自然地表明她在融合主义圈子中被视为耶和华的配偶”(Day, 1986,392)。

2000年的约翰·戴(John Day)表达了他后来的一些不同观点,他说,“确实在流放前就有一个一神崇拜的政党,虽然它不是那么占主导地位(……)。”绝对一神论最初是由先知申命记-以赛亚在流放中明确表达的,并在流放后的时期充分发挥作用”(Day, 2000,228)。因此,正如早先他所说,多神论是在少数人的圈子里实行的,现在他认为多神论和许多神的概念在以色列宗教中普遍存在(Day, 385)。

1987年,大卫·弗里德曼在《圣经考古学家》的文章《撒马利亚的耶和华和他的亚舍拉》中提出了一种新的方法。作为提弗,他还把“亚舍拉”确定为女神,也是古代以色列耶和华的配偶。在Kuntillet ‘ Ajrud发现的铭文再次成为本研究的重点,他还提到了所有格后缀的语言问题(耶和华和他的阿舍拉)。在他看来,新的和奇怪的语法结构不应该被视为问题,而是应该调查他们背后的原因。Freedman认为,“由于Asherah在不止一个地方被崇拜,因此单独的神龛和图像将以她的名字命名,并且为了将两者区别开来,双重决心[5]将是必要的和适当的”(Freedman, 246)。后来,他试图找到,如果亚舍拉被称为只是亚舍拉,或亚舍拉代替’他的亚舍拉’。他在《列王记》第18章第1-46节中找到了一个线索。这个故事是关于先知以利亚和巴力先知之间的竞争。比赛是在耶和华和巴力之间决定谁是真正的神。除了450名巴力先知,还有400名亚舍拉先知。以利亚成为比赛的赢家,巴力的先知被杀(弗里德曼,246)。

美国代写论文:约翰·戴对“阿舍拉”的观点讨论

John Day in the year 1986, argued that in the Old Testament ‘asherah’ is referred to be both, a goddess and a cult object. Day’s study focuses on asherah as she exists in the Hebrew bible and Northwest Semitic literature. He had also mentioned some Akkadian cuneiform texts, in which there is reference about a goddess Ašratum, Aširat, Aširta and other related spelling. He had examined different words that are used to state a god or a goddess, focusing mainly on the goddess Asherah. In addition to this study, he had also focused on the iconographic representation of the goddess and mainly about Asherah.
Like Dever, Day has also recognized the linguistic problem of the possessive suffix in the inscriptions of Ajrud and the el-Qom. And thus he had rejected that view the Asherah is referred as the goddess in this text. According to Day, the main thing is that Asherah is denoted as the cultic object (Day, 1986, 392). And the meaning of his object is well preserved in Old Testament. However, he had argued the “the presence of the symbol of the goddess Asherah next to Yahweh’s altar [in OT] most naturally suggests that she was regarded in syncretistic circles as Yahweh’s consort” (Day, 1986, 392).
John Day in the year 2000, formulated he later view with some difference, he states that “there was indeed a monolatrous party already in the pre-exilic period, though it was not that dominant (…). Absolute monotheism was first given explicit expression by the prophet deuteron-Isaiah in the exile and became fully operative in the post-exilic period” (Day, 2000, 228).So as earlier he stated that polytheism was practiced in few circle, now he suggests the polytheism and the concept of many gods was prevalent in Israel religion (Day, 385).
In 1987, David Freedman provided a new approach in his article ‘Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah’ in The Biblical Archaeologist. As Dever, he also identified ‘asherah’ as a goddess and also as the consort of Yahweh in ancient Israel. The inscription found at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud were again the main focus of this research and he also mentioned the linguistic problem of the possessive suffix (Yahweh and his Asherah). According to him, the new and strange grammatical constructions should not be seen as problem but they should be investigated to find the reason behind them. Freedman argues, “since Asherah was worshipped in more than one place, separate shrines and images would bear her name, and to distinguish one from another, double determination [5] would be both necessary and appropriate” (Freedman, 246). Later he tried to find that if Asherah is called as just Asherah, or Asherah of instead of ‘his Asherah’. He had found a hint in the story told in Kings 18:1-46. The story is about the contest between the prophet Elijah and the prophets of Baäl. The contest is to decide who the real god between Yahweh and Baal is. Along with the 450 prophets of Baäl, also 400 prophets of Asherah are involved. Elijah becomes the winner of the contest and the prophets of Baal are killed (Freedman, 246).