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美国代写:社会认同理论和厌恶种族主义理论

社会认同理论:世界上的人们生活在一个社会环境中,在这个社会环境中,他们跨越了集体自我和个人自我之间的连续统一体。社会环境的不同导致了特定群体成员的显著性。理论假设的第一个框架是社会认同的视角,它认为群体中的成员有动机保护他们的个人尊严,并获得积极的和不同的社会认同。这种对社会中积极身份的追求导致歧视,这种歧视可以表现为直接伤害外部群体或更普遍地表现为提供基于群体的优惠待遇,这是一种称为群体偏见的过程(Thornley 1996)。

此外,对于群体的最小范式研究,可以说明个人需要区别对待的一般趋势。这些反过来揭示了作为群体成员的单纯分类可能导致群体内偏见的方式。例如,在评估和分配资源时,组内成员优先于组外成员。

Social Identity Theory: The world has people living in a social context wherein they traverse the continuum between collective and personal selves. Different contexts in the society lead towards particular group membership salience. The first framework of theoretical presumption is the perspective of social identifies which holds that members in a group are motivated towards protecting their individual esteem and achieving a positive and different social identity. Such a drive for a positive identity in the society results into discrimination which can be expressed as directly harming to out groups or more generally as providing in-group based preferential treatment which is a process known as bias in-group (Thornley 1996).
Furthermore, the general tendencies that individuals require discriminating can be illustrated for minimal paradigm studies for groups. These in turn reveal the way in which mere categorization as a member of group can lead towards bias in-group. For example, the in-group members favouring over other members in out group when evaluating as well as when allocating resources.

美国代写:社会认同理论和厌恶种族主义理论

厌恶种族主义理论:这一理论是对社会认同理论的补充,并致力于进一步确定种族歧视可能抑制或表现自己的方式。令人厌恶的种族主义的框架已经发展成为了解冲突在心理上对不同个人的种族态度造成的影响所必不可少的(Rubery等人1995年)。社会规范的变化日益导致对少数群体和相关群体的歧视。对于地位较高的群体,群体正当性和自我对应的信念是,系统是公平的,他们的地位越高,就会得到相应的回报。这进而导致了群体内的偏见。拥有个人和群体福利历史的个人,往往从描述中获得规定,或者简而言之,在“应该”的幻觉下劳动。这些成员相信,由于这是世界的现状,而且这是多年来的样子。他们进一步认为这就是它的样子。然而,对于社会地位较低的群体成员来说,如果他们相信他们的制度是公平的,这些理由就需要相互矛盾(Colgan等,1996年)。他们的低地位也可以明显地表现为对无价值的应得惩罚,并可能导致群体外偏见的表达,或认为群体外更好,因此需要特权。因此,系统正当性理论是这样的,它扩展了社会认同的视角来解释为什么群体之间的不平等和歧视被容忍和延续。

Aversive racism theory: This theory is complementary to the theory of social identity and engages in further identifying the way in which discrimination of racial nature might inhibit or manifest itself. The framework for aversive racism has evolved essential for understanding the conflict psychologically afflicting various individuals with regard to their attitude racially (Rubery et al 1995). Changing norms in the society increasingly result in discrimination towards minority groups and related groups stigmatised. For groups with higher status, group justification and ego correspond to beliefs that the system is fair and that their higher status offers a rewards them being worthy for it. This in turn leads towards bias in-group. Individuals with a personal and group benefit history often derive their prescriptive from description or in brief, labour under the illusion of “is ought. These members are of the belief that as this is how the world is and has looked for several years. They further think that this is the way in which it has to look like. For group members from low status, these justifications, however, require to be at odds if they are of the belief that their system is fair (Colgan et al 1996). Their low status can also be evident as deserved punishment for non-worthiness and can lead towards out-group bias expression or a perspective that out-groups are better and therefore require privilege. Therefore, the theory of system justification is such that it extends the perspective of social identity to explaining the reasons why inequalities as well as discrimination between groups is tolerated and perpetuated.