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美国代写:新自由主义的经济理论

治理的概念已经过时了,而将新自由主义作为一套指导方针的概念在过去25年里风行一时。这些政策的核心是经济方面的。“自由主义”一词指的是经济、政治或宗教观念。政治自由主义被用作一种避免社会冲突的策略。然而,有了“新”,我们现在谈论的是一种新的自由主义。根据Saad-Filho和Johnston (2005, p. 1)的观点,“我们生活在新自由主义时代”。与这一主题的几位作者一样,人们普遍认为,财富和权力正集中于精英集团和国际公司。这种平衡不断向较富裕的群体倾斜,这是被称为“新自由主义”的政治和经济意识形态的直接后果。(Thorsen & Lie, 2006, p. 7).约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯,20世纪最具影响力的英国经济学家之一,也被认为是现代宏观经济学之父之一。他提出了一种“干预主义”的政府策略。他主张,如果允许市场完全自由,而不干预政府,可能意味着毁灭。这可能会导致一个永无止境的萧条、衰退和繁荣周期。他认为,一定程度的财政和货币工具必须由国家来控制危机局势。二战结束后,直到20世纪70年代左右,凯恩斯的思想才被采用,然而,在自由市场体系的力量使他的意识形态过时后,凯恩斯的思想才被采用。(沙,2010)

经济理论,“新古典主义”假设人们是自我追求和物质主义。然而,它没有提供任何证据,但它认为,首先,人们想要满足他们所有的物质需求。经济学家将这种现象称为“效用最大化”。人类的最终目标是经济增长,为了达到这一目标,有必要引入竞争,同时放松对整个环境的监管。这种意识形态的倡导者正将这种制度下报酬的不均衡分配视为经济增长的代价。人口分为生产要素、顾客和竞争对手。它对环境和植物的影响在这个阶段没有被考虑。这种意识形态根本没有考虑到社会结构或人性、爱、合作、仇恨或同情、美或好奇心等因素。所有无法量化的东西都会被忽略。然而,新自由主义意识形态完全忘记了,一旦一个人的基本需求,如食物和住所得到满足,他往往会寻找所有这些满足的人道因素(Ross, 2011)。

美国代写:新自由主义的经济理论

The concept of governance is age old, while the notion of Neo-liberalism as a set of guidelines is in the rage for about last 25 years. The core of these policies is economic in nature. The term ‘Liberalism’ refers to economic, political or religious ideas. Political liberalism has been used as a strategy to avoid social conflicts. However with ‘Neo’, we are now talking about new kind of liberalism. According to Saad-Filho and Johnston (2005, p. 1), “we live in the age of neo-liberalism”. Like several authors on the subject it is commonly believed that wealth and power are being concentrated on elite groups and international corporations. The balance is constantly tilting towards the wealthier group and this is direct consequence of political and economic ideology called ‘neo-liberalism’. (Thorsen & Lie, 2006, p. 7). John Maynard Keynes, one of the most powerful British economists of the 20th century, also considered as one of the fathers of modern macroeconomics. He has suggested an ‘interventionist’ form of government strategy. He advocates that if markets are allowed complete freedom, without intervention of the government, could spell destruction. This could lead to a never ending cycle of depressions, recessions and booms. He believes that certain degree of fiscal and monetary tools must be with the state to control the crisis situation. After the destruction of World War II till around 1970s Keynes ideas were used, however after that force of free market systems made his ideologies obsolete. (Shah, 2010)
The theory of economy, ‘neo-classical’ assumes people to be self-seeking and materialistic. However it does not provide any proof, but it believes that above everything else people want to satisfy all their material needs. Economists have coined this phenomenon as “maximising utility”. The eventual goal of human being is economic growth and to attain that it is necessary to introduce competition while keeping the entire environment lightly regulated. The promoters of this ideology are looking at the uneven spread of rewards under this system to be a price for economic growth. The population is divided into either factors of production, customers or competitors. Its effect on the environment and plant are not being considered at this stage. This ideology have not at all considered society structure or human nature, factors like love, cooperation, hatred or compassion, beauty or curiosity. Everything that cannot be quantified is ignored. However the neo-liberalism ideology has entirely forgotten that once a man’s basic needs like food and shelter are attained, he tends to look for all such humane factors for satisfaction (Ross, 2011).