Assignment First


腐败概念中存在着多种模态形式和系统。有几个指数可以用来了解腐败的影响。腐败的危害程度取决于腐败的程度。这也取决于谁沉溺于腐败行为(Mahmoudi, 2014)。因此,许多文献对腐败的定义不尽相同。一些定义试图提供一个正式的全面的定义。最常见的定义是世界银行提出的定义。这将腐败视为“滥用公职谋取私利”(世界银行2013年)。收益可以是无形的,也可以是有形的过程。而其他定义侧重于小规模,如Madsen(2013)对腐败的定义为

“有人被收买去做他或她不应该做的事,或不按照法律、法规或合同义务去做的事”(Madsen 2013, p.26)。

尽管在制定这些定义方面存在着差异,但可以看出,大家一致认为,腐败是有权力的人进行的一系列活动。这些参与腐败行为的人被发现有一定的权力和权威授予他们。这是一种为了自身利益而故意违反法律法规的观念(Dong & Torgler, 2013)。腐败以多种形式存在,其根源在于社会的一致性。它不能局限于任何一个范围。它影响着社会的方方面面。因此,腐败在现实中影响到所有的社会成员,阻碍了社会的发展。


There are multi modal forms and systems that exist in the notion of corruption. There are several indices that are used to understand the impact of corruption. Extent of damage of corruption is dependent on the levels of corruption. It is also dependent on who indulges in the acts of corruptions (Mahmoudi, 2014). Thus, the definition of corruption varies in many literatures. Some definitions try to offer a formal comprehensive definition. The most commonly definition is the definition proposed by World Bank. This deems corruption as “the abuse of public office for private gain” (World Bank 2013). Gain can be intangible or tangible process. While other definitions focus on a small scale such as the definition proposed by Madsen (2013) who defined corruption as
“Somebody being paid to do what he or she should not do, or not to do in accordance with law, regulations or contractual obligations” (Madsen 2013, p.26).
In spite of the differences in the formulation of these definitions, consensus can be seen that corruption is a set of activities undertaken by people with authority. These people who partake in corruptive practices are found to have certain powers and authority bestowed upon them. This is a deliberate notion to transgress against the law and regulation for the sake of their self-interests (Dong & Torgler, 2013). Corruption exists in multi modal forms and is based on the conformities of the societies. It cannot be limited to any one scope. It affects all facets of the society. Hence corruption in reality impacts all societal members and hampers the growth of society.