Assignment First


旅游目的地的当地设施分为两类——自然资源和文化资源(Richards, 1996)。海滩、山脉和景观可以被认为是自然资源。纪念碑、博物馆和建筑被认为是重要的文化资源。这些资源的影响进一步分为两种模式。第一种模式对旅游业和经济的增长有着巨大的影响,但它不会导致任何形式的移民流动。它也与劳动力的不流动有关。第二个模型分析了劳动力流动和移民流动的因素(Adams & Parmenter, 1995)。借助现有的文学资源,可以对这些方面进行有效的分析。


The local amenities of the tourist destinations have two different classes — natural resources and cultural resources (Richards, 1996). Beaches, mountains, and landscapes can be considered as the natural resources. Monuments, museums, and architecture are regarded as the significant cultural resources. The impact of these resources is further divided into two models. The first model has a huge impact on the growth of tourism and economy but it does not lead to any kind of migration flows. It is also related to labor immobility. The second model analyzes the factor of labor mobility and migration flows (Adams & Parmenter, 1995). With the help of the existing literary sources, these aspects can be effectively analyzed.
We can clearly and efficiently analyze the effect of labor immobility by assessing the economic effect and distributional welfare of the cultural tourism. This model tries to establish the aspect in which local amenities plays a huge role in the growth of tourism and economy but does not induce any kind of labor immobility.


当游客跨越国界到国外旅游时,他们有机会在原始和基本的位置消费目的地的当地设施。这就是为什么文化旅游经常被认为是一种无形的出口产业(厄里,1988)。这一机制对住宿、餐饮等非贸易产业有着直接的影响。游客不太在意自己国家出口商品的价格,而是更关注能给他们带来文化利益和快乐的产品和服务。它对经济增长有直接的影响。非贸易商品起着至关重要的作用。而在全球市场上,可贸易商品的价格几乎是固定的,而文化商品和服务等非贸易设施的价格则是由当地人根据土地、劳动力和资本等多种因素来决定的(Dioko, 2016)。文化旅游的流量取决于这些非贸易设施的价格。地方政府知道,他们必须明智地、平衡地定价。如果价格大幅上涨,游客会尝试选择其他目的地或其他替代商品和服务(Kislali, Kavaratzis, & Saren, 2016)。这不仅会对该地区的经济产生巨大影响,也会对整个地区的经济产生巨大影响。因此,文化资源的不流动对经济的影响是显而易见的。如果价格和成本合理、合理、平衡,游客的需求就会增加。它吸引了越来越多的游客,为经济增长做出了贡献。但是,同样值得注意的是,价格和成本的增长在文化旅游增长的均衡中呈上升趋势。具有巨大文化重要性和丰富传统的目的地能够吸引任何游客。因此,价格的上涨将确保经济增长。我们必须分析这方面的不同方面,才能有一个清晰和正确的认识。

When tourists cross the national boundaries and visit a foreign country, they get the opportunity to consume the local amenities of the destination places at its original and basic location. This is why cultural tourism is often considered as an export industry in an invisible form (Urry, 1988). This mechanism has a direct effect on the non-tradable industries like the accommodating hotels and restaurants. The tourists do not pay much concern to the price of the export goods in their own homelands, but they concentrate more on the products and services that can provide them cultural benefit and joy. It has a direct impact on the economic growth. The non-tradable goods play the vital role. Whereas the prices of the tradable goods are almost fixed in the global markets, the prices of the non-tradable amenities like cultural goods and services are determined by the locals depending on various factors like land, labor, and capital (Dioko, 2016). The flow of cultural tourism depends on the prices of these non-tradable amenities. The local authorities know that they have to set the prices intelligently and in a balanced manner. If the prices are increased heavily, then the tourists will try to choose other destinations or other alternative goods and services (Kislali, Kavaratzis, & Saren, 2016). This will hugely impact the economy not only of that particular locality but also of that whole region. Therefore, it is pretty clear that the immobility of the cultural resources has a significant impact on the economy. The demand of the tourists increases if the prices and costs are fair, logical, and balanced. It attracts more and more tourists that contribute to the economic growth. But, it is also significant to note that the prices and the costs increase in the equilibrium of the growth of cultural tourism. Destinations with immense cultural importance and rich tradition are able to attract tourists whatsoever. Therefore, the increase of the prices will ensure the economic growth. We have to analyze different sides of this aspect to arrive at a clear and proper understanding.