Assignment First


在政治冲突中,从一个角度看,恐怖主义的利用可能是有限的,这有助于对冲突造成明显的不对称。如果恐怖分子一方在使用类似策略时成功地拉住了对方,那么防御者和攻击者之间的道德分化就会有迅速侵蚀的趋势,对社会造成严重的后果(Bignami, 2007)。在将恐怖主义行为与种族灭绝行为进行比较时,在进行种族灭绝所用的方法、当权者的动机因素以及受害群体与占支配地位的群体之间的关系方面有许多相似之处。



从无政府主义的角度看,恐怖主义的本质是作为社会的一项原始原则,以自愿合作的方式废除和取代政府制度。这一意识形态的采用是由工业工人阶级作为争取其权利的政治声音而采取的。再往前,从法西斯主义的角度来看,恐怖主义的意识形态与冲突、统治、暴力和战争有关(Martin, 2015)。这种政治意识形态倾向于支持暴力促进人类进步,鼓吹军国主义压迫和统治对手。这也将恐怖主义视为社会变革的源头,同时将恐怖主义所涉及的冲突视为获得力量的基本生活规则(Ignatieff, 2013)。

从反恐反殖民主义的理论视角看,新转型的恐怖主义导致了民族和民族的独立决定权等政治新趋势的演变。这是考虑到帝国主义的政治,文化和经济对世界各地的大国。从正统的理论视角来看,恐怖主义逻辑被称为政治变革和政治行动的策略和学说(Fishman, 2006)。在考虑与政治有关的恐怖主义目标时,这一理论的重点是将一个既定的国家和权威作为恐怖主义行为的关键目标。这个观点还涉及到战术、象征和功能方面的考虑。最后,考虑到宗教的视角,犯罪学阐明了恐怖主义意识形态与宗教纪律之间的联系(Bush, 2009)。事实上,以宗教的名义,恐怖主义的目的是政治动机。


In a conflict of politics, there might be a confined utilization of terrorism from one perspective, which helps in providing a marked asymmetry to conflict. If the side of terrorist is successful in pulling the other side in the utilization of similar tactics, the moral differentiation between defender and attacker holds the tendency of quick erosion, having severe results for the society (Bignami, 2007). When comparing the acts of terrorism with that of genocide, there are a number of similarities with respect to the methods used for carrying out genocide, the motivating factors of the ones in power and having the relationship between the victimized and dominant groups.
Perspectives of Terrorism
In politics, terrorism can be considered from 5 different theoretical perspectives. These are of anarchism, fascism, anti- colonialism, orthodox, and religion.
The essence of terrorism, from the perspective of anarchism is to abolish the system of government and its replacement by voluntarily cooperating as an original principle of the society. The adoption of this ideology had been done by the working classes of the industry as a voice of politics for their rights. Further ahead, from the perspective of fascism, the ideology of terrorism is related to conflict, domination, violence and war (Martin, 2015). This ideology of politics tends to be supporting violence for the progress of humans, and advocating militarism for oppression and domination of adversaries. This also considers terrorism as a source of initiating change within the society, while considering the conflict involved in terrorism as a foundational rule of life for gaining strength (Ignatieff, 2013).
Considering the theoretical perspective of anti-colonialism for terrorism, the newly transformed terrorism has resulted in evolving new trends of politics such as the right of individually determining ethnic groups and nations. This considers the imperialism of politics, culture and economy on great powers across the globe. From the theoretical perspective of orthodox, the logic of terrorism has been referred to as a strategy and doctrine for political change and political action (Fishman, 2006). While considering the objectives of terrorism related to politics, the key focus of this theory is one established state and authority as the key target for act of terrorism. This perspective further involves the consideration of tactical, symbolic and functional aspects. Finally, considering the perspective of religion, criminology has illustrated the linkage between the ideology of terrorism and the discipline of religion (Bush, 2009). As a matter of fact, in the name of religion, the aim of terrorism is on motives of politics.