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美国论文查重:技术服务的管理方法

一个合适的服务质量管理方法是酒店成功的必要条件。理论上,提高服务质量通常采用两种方法。第一种方法是技术方法,另一种方法是与客户相关的方法(或客户反馈方法)。为了了解哪种方法更适合已经建立的新酒店业务,有必要批判性地评估这两种方法的优缺点。

技术方法和与顾客有关的方法基本上都是管理工作,以帮助提高服务质量。在技术方法方面,管理部门着重于一些既定的标准,以确保质量得到改善和持续。与技术方法相比,与客户相关的方法具有更现实的优势,因为它直接从客户和与客户交互的员工(前线)那里获得反馈(Gummesson, 1993)。技术方法具有以生产为导向的优势,是影响服务创造的良好选择。通过保证生产过程中存在的问题影响最小,保证了服务质量的一致性。任何可能导致服务质量障碍的问题都将在生产阶段解决(Wisniewski, and Donnelly, 1996)。因此,参与服务的员工将被要求满足这些标准,任何阻止他们提供服务质量的问题都将得到解决。然而,技术方法的问题是,所涉及的工作人员仅仅被视为服务质量的必要标准,因此这可能不是在工作场所使用的最佳行为方法。问题中的酒店是新的,酒店的员工也是新的。在这一点上,管理层必须注重质量,并与员工建立融洽的关系。工作文化将带来可持续的服务质量。

当技术方法仅仅将员工视为需要培训、监督和协调的元素时,基于客户的方法实际上有助于将员工作为个人进行工作。与客户相关的方法(或客户反馈方法)对客户更友好。工作质量和工作满意度被认为是质量的驱动因素。消费者将消费酒店提供的服务,然后他们将自己的期望与接受服务的体验进行比较(Lovelock, &Gummesson, 2004)。消费者可能对服务感到满意,也可能不满意。顾客的不满可能源于实际的服务质量问题、顾客的满意程度、顾客对服务质量有自己的基准等等。在这种情况下,使用员工(一线员工)作为了解客户满意和不满意的标准将会有所帮助。在这里,员工不仅仅是为了确保服务质量而被操纵的实体(Edvardsson, Larsson, and Setterlind, 1997;Edvardsen, Tomasson和Ovretveit1994)。员工成为质量的积极生产者。此外,在与客户相关的方法中,客户反馈本身也被考虑在内。管理人员将在这里寻求人为因素、技术、质量和生产力之间的平衡(Gummesson, 1993)。服务差距是由这些参数的相互作用确定的。因此,建议酒店采用与顾客相关的服务质量管理方法。客户相关的服务质量管理可以通过SERVQUAL (Edvardsen, Tomasson, and Ovretveit, 1994)等工具来实现。

美国论文查重:技术服务的管理方法

An appropriate service quality management method is necessary for the hotel to be successful. In theory two approaches are often made use of for improving service quality. The first of the approach is the technical approach and the other is the customer related (or customer feedback approach). To understand which would be more suitable for the new hotel business that has been established, it would be necessary to critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of both the approaches.
Both the technical approach and the customer related approach are basically the work of management in order to help improve the quality of services. In the case of the technical approach the management focuses on some set standards in order to ensure quality is improved and sustained. Compared to the technical approach, the customer related approach has the strength of being more realistic as it directly takes feedback from the customer and the employees (frontline) interacting with the customers (Gummesson, 1993).The technical approach has the advantage of being production oriented which makes it a good choice for influencing the creation of service. The consistency of service quality is guaranteed by ensuring there is minimum problem influence in production. Any issues that could lead to the impediment of quality in service will be addressed at the production stage itself (Wisniewski, and Donnelly, 1996). Employees involved in the service would hence be brought up to sate on the standards and any issues that stop them from delivering service quality are addressed. However, the problem with the technical approach is that the staffs involved are merely considered as the criterion necessary for service quality, and hence this might not be the best behavioural approach to use in the workplace. The hotel under question is new and the staffs for the hotel are also new. The management at this point has to focus on quality and also build its rapport with employees. The work culture is what would lead to sustainable service quality.
Where the technical approach views the employees as mere elements requiring training, supervision and coordination, the customer based approach actually helps in working with the employees as individual people. The customer related approach (or the customer feedback approach) is a more customer friendly approach. The work quality and work satisfactions are considered as the drivers of quality. Consumers will consume the service being produced in the hotel and then they will compare their expectations to the experience of receiving the service (Lovelock, &Gummesson, 2004).Consumers might or might not be satisfied with the service the customer dissatisfaction can arise from actual service quality issues, the customer satisfaction, customers having their own benchmarks on quality etc. In such cases, using the employees (frontline employees) as a gauge for understanding customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction would be helpful. Here the employees would serve as more than entities that are manipulated for ensuring service quality (Edvardsson, Larsson, and Setterlind, 1997; Edvardsen, Tomasson, and Ovretveit1994). Employees become an active producer of quality. In the customer related approach furthermore, the customer feedback is itself taken into consideration. The management would look for a balance between human factors, technology, quality and productivity here (Gummesson, 1993). Service gaps are identified with the interplay of these parameters. The customer related service quality management method is hence recommended for the hotel. The customer related service quality management can be achieved with such tools as the SERVQUAL (Edvardsen, Tomasson, and Ovretveit, 1994).