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美国论文代写骗子:动物实验案例的讨论分析

在过去,没有一些强有力的法律来评估对动物的治疗。只有针对动物的基本法律,防止虐待动物、无目的和蓄意杀害动物或以任何形式造成痛苦或痛苦。这些是过去的法律,不适用的雕像和法官时,有目的有关使用动物(Hofer et al, 2004)。然而,在最近的过去,有大量的使用动物的一些作品,其中有一个目的包括动物测试。这导致了对动物残忍行为的严重增加,并导致制定了与动物试验相关的更为严格的法律。

近年来,有大量的动物实验案例被报道,这既与有益的科学研究有关,也可能与杀害动物的人违反道德有关。在对动物进行的测试中所受到的虐待引起了很多关注。据报道,在1985年,有一只猕猴引起了公众的注意(Greengard et al, 1999)。他的眼皮闭得很紧,头上戴着一个声纳传感器,以便进行与为盲人设计的感官替代装置有关的测试。一场突袭行动展开,布列奇和466只其他动物获救。后来,在剑桥大学和哥伦比亚大学2002年进行的实验中,还发生了许多其他与虐待动物有关的案例。此外,一些其他的调查发现,动物测试公司正在使用残忍的方法。在弗吉尼亚实验室进行的活动是由善待动物组织(PETA)拍摄的。由于公布了这段视频,美国政府电视台已被罚款8720美元。此外,在1997年,善待动物组织还拍摄了亨廷顿生命科学中心工作人员的活动,在那里分析了这些狗受到虐待的情况。之后,被发现虐待狗的员工也被解雇了。除此之外,他们还必须支付250英镑的罚款(Sanchez et al, 2004)。

还有其他一些证据表明,公司或个人的决策“受到政治、社会或伦理因素的影响”。据了解,2008年以后,动物维权机构和个人就动物检测相关问题进行了多次攻击。2006年,一名研究人员在收到来自动物保护组织的威胁后,不得不放弃了他正在进行的所有实验。因此,做动物实验的决定受到了影响,因为动物的警告。另一个案例是在2007年报道的,一个炸弹被放置在ULCA儿童眼科医生的车里,当时他正在对猫和恒河猴进行实验。这些是一些极端的影响,可以观察到的问题,有关动物试验。由此可见,动物实验在社会层面上产生了严重的影响(Hartung & Leist, 2008)。

另一个政治影响已经在印度和欧盟被观察到,在那里,政府已经实施了完全禁止在动物身上测试化妆品的禁令。此外,美国人民也对禁止在美国动物身上进行化妆品测试表现出了兴趣。

有一些运动和活动是为了改变动物实验、公司、个人和研究人员的决策。有许多组织正在遗弃的动物实验是在实验室的动物遭受很多。这些组织一直在大量的工作组织在世界上最强大的国家,如美国,欧盟,加拿大,中国,俄罗斯,日本,韩国,台湾;新加坡等国正在为保护动物做建设性的工作。这些组织正在实施各种措施,例如在一些实验室进行秘密调查,开展和平运动,与动物测试公司和实验室进行讨论,以便就新方法的需要达成共识(Venkatesan et al ., 2002)。

有观点的人可能不接受任何形式的动物实验,因为它可能会伤害到动物的不良方式,好处可能观察到的动物实验不能被证明是有效的和利益相关动物实验可以通过其他一些方法。

美国论文代写骗子:动物实验案例的讨论分析

In the past, there were not some of the robust laws for the purpose of assessment related to the treatment on the animals. There were only basic laws against animals which prevented sadistic and purposeless and deliberate killing of the animals or giving pain or suffering in any form. These were the laws in past which were not applicable by the statue and judiciaries when there was the purpose related to the use of animals (Hofer et al, 2004). However, in the recent past, there has been a large use of animals in some of the works which had a purpose including animal testing. This has led to a vital increase in cruelty to animals and led to the creation of much more stringent laws related to animal testing.
In the recent times there have been a large number of cases reported in case of animal testing, which are both related to the beneficial scientific research and also the instances which may be related to the ethical violation by the people who are performing the killing of animals. There have been a lot of concerns which are raised for the mistreatments in the testing being conducted on the animals. According to the report, it was found that in the year 1985, there was a macaque monkey who had gained attention publically (Greengard et al, 1999). His eyelids had been shut down in such a manner that a sonar sensor was put on his head in order to do the testing related to the sensory substitution devices which were to be devised for the blind people. A raid was conducted and britches and 466 other animals had been rescued. Later there were many other cases related to the cruelty on the animals in the experiments conducted at the university of Cambridge and Columbia in the year 2002. Further a number of other investigations were done which found that the animal testing companies are using cruel ways. The activities which were being done at the Virginia lab had been shot by PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals). As a result of the release of the footage, the government of USA had fined an amount of $8720. Further, in the year 1997, PETA had also filmed the activities of the staff at the Huntingdon Life sciences where it was analyzed that the dogs are being mistreated. After this the employees who were found to doing the mistreatment to the dog were also terminated. In addition to which, they had to pay the fine of 250 pounds (Sanchez et al, 2004).
There are a number of other evidences in which the companies or the individual’s decisions’ are impacted because of the political, social or ethical factors. It has been found that after 2008, there have been a number of attacks by the animal activist agencies and individuals on the issue related to the animal testing. In the year, 2006 a researcher had to abandon all the experimentations which were being done by him after receiving a threat from the animal activist group. Thus the decision to do the animal testing had been impacted because of the warning of the animals. Another case was reported in the year 2007 in which a bomb had been placed in the car of ULCA children’s ophthalmologist who was doing an experiment on cats and rhesus monkey. These are some of the extreme impacts which may been observed on the issues related to the animal testing. Thus, it can be observed that there has been a serious impact of the animal testing at the social level (Hartung & Leist, 2008).
Another political impact has been observed in India and the European Union where the government has implemented the complete ban on the testing of the cosmetic products on animals. Also, the people of America have shown interest in banning the cosmetics test on Animals in US as well.
There are a number of movements and activities for the changing of the decisions of the animal testing, companies, individuals and the researchers. There are a number of organizations who are working for the abandonment on animal testing as the animals who are in laboratories suffer a lot. These organizations have been working in a large number of organizations in the most powerful nations of the world such as United States, the European Union, Canada, China, Russia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan; Singapore etc. are doing the constructive work for the protection of the animals. These organizations are implementing various measures such as conducting the undercover investigations in a number of laboratories, doing peaceful campaigns and entering into discussions with the animal testing companies and laboratories in order to build a consensus for the need of the new approach (Venkatesan et al, 2002).
The people are having the viewpoint that it may not be acceptable to do any kind of animal testing as it may be harming the animals in an adverse manner, the benefits which may be observed in the animal testing can’t be proven effectively and the benefits which are related to the animal testing can be obtained by a number of other methods.