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美国论文代写:糖尿病对美国的影响

2012年,美国诊断糖尿病的成本为2450亿美元。在这1760亿美元中,直接医疗费用和690亿美元的生产力降低。其中最大的医疗支出是住院病人护理(美国糖尿病协会,2013)。约占总医疗费用的43%。处方药占这些费用的18%,抗糖尿病药物和糖尿病用品占12%。其中,身体护理费用占9%,居住设施费用占8%以上。根据美国糖尿病基金会2012年的统计数据,发现人们在患糖尿病时,每年要花费13700美元(美国糖尿病协会,2013)。糖尿病患者的医疗支出是其他人群的2.3倍。根据成本计算,研究发现超过五分之一的医疗费用用于治疗糖尿病。涉及的间接成本超过50亿美元。患糖尿病也降低了工人的工作效率。研究发现,在有工作的人群中,它们减少了207.9亿美元的劳动生产率(美国糖尿病协会,2013)。由于这种情况,无法工作和劳动力成本的减少超过184.5亿美元。预计到2020年,不断上涨的医疗成本将大幅增加这些成本(美国糖尿病协会,2013年)。这对工作中患有糖尿病的人来说是非常有害的。

呼吸机相关性肺炎的费用为40 144美元。手术部位感染为20 785美元,范围在18 902美元至22 667美元之间,梭状芽孢杆菌困难感染平均为11 285美元。价格从9118美元到13574美元不等。导管相关性尿路感染为896美元,范围从603美元到1189美元(Zimlichman et al., 2013)。每年感染的总费用为98亿美元。这些疾病源于医院的医疗保健相关疾病。为了患者的安全,也为了降低医院的成本,需要预防这种情况的发生。有大量有力的证据表明,应该提出干预措施来减少这些情况。预计这些成本将会随着通货膨胀率的上升而上升,如果不立即解决,这些成本将呈指数级增长(Zimlichman et al., 2013)。医院有必要制定适当的干预措施,以预防以医院护理为基础的病人疾病。这对政府来说是一个巨大的负担。有必要加强对医院的干预和伦理考虑。为了防止这些需求,医院为在医院工作的人提供适当的培训。这表明有必要对医院目前的做法进行彻底的改革和改变,以防止今后发生这种情况。研究和帝国数据混淆了医院需要制定强有力的政策来防止这些成本,这可以降低医疗系统涉及的总成本Zimlichman等人,2013)。

美国论文代写:糖尿病对美国的影响

The cost of diagnosed diabetes in the US in the year 2012 is $245 billion. In this $176 billion are direct medical costs and the $69 billion are reduced in the productivity. The largest component of this medical expenditure is inpatient care (American Diabetes Association, 2013). It is around 43% of the total medical costs. Prescription medication accounts for 18% of these costs, anti diabetic agents and diabetes supplies are found to account for 12%. 9% of the costs which are involved in physical care, and the residential facility costs account for more than 8%. According to the 2012 statistical data by the American Diabetes Foundation, it was found that $13700 per year was spent when people develop diabetes condition (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The medical expenditure for people who had developed diabetes was 2.3 times higher than the other people in the demography. Based on costs, it was found that more than 1 in 5 health care dollars are spent for the diabetes condition. Indirect costs involved are more than 5 billion dollars. Developing diabetes also reduced productivity among the workers. It was found that they reduce worker productivity by $20.79 billion in the employed population (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The inability to work and the reduction in the work force costs owing to this condition is more than 18.45 billion dollars. Rising health care costs is expected to increase these cost dramatically by the year 2020 (American Diabetes Association, 2013). This would be very detrimental for the people who had contracted diabetes condition in the workforce.
For ventilator associated pneumonia, the costs is $40 144. Surgical site infections at $20 785 which ranged between $18 902-$22 667, Clostridium difficult infection was at an average of $11 285. This ranged from $9118 to $13 574. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections were $896 which ranged from $603 to $1189 (Zimlichman et al., 2013). Total annual cost for the infections accounted for 9.8 billion dollars. These conditions stems from health care associated illnesses in the hospitals. This needs to be prevented for the safety of the patients and also to reduce the costs incurred by the hospitals. There is a robust body of evidence stating that there should be interventions proposed to reduce these conditions. It is expected that these costs would rise according to the inflation rates and would grow exponentially if it is not addressed immediately (Zimlichman et al., 2013). There is a need for the hospitals to develop proper interventions to prevent hospital care based illnesses for the patients. This is becoming a substantial burden to the government. There is a need for increased intervention and ethical considerations of the hospitals. Hospitals to prevent these needs provide proper training for the people working in the hospitals. This indicates that there is a need to overhaul and change the current practice followed by the hospitals to prevent such conditions from occurring in the future. The research and empire data confused that the hospitals need to develop robust policy to prevent these costs and this could reduce the overall costs involved for the health care system Zimlichman et al., 2013).