Assignment First

美国论文网:创新是旅游经济的主要驱动

创新要遵循自然增长规律。因此,它们的生命周期总是呈钟形曲线。随着产品在市场上的推出,创新周期开始,随后进入快速增长阶段。这种增长之后,在产品的成熟期达到更高的价值之前,周转率也会急剧提高。从图3所示的与下坡滑雪相关的例子可以明显看出,旅游产品创新周期可能是一个完整的循环。这项运动与旅游业有关,近年来正处于繁荣时期(Sipe和Testa, 2009)。由于更新的需求和趋势首先基于垄断地位的损失作为冬季运动,速降滑雪能手数量开始下降,即使供应商已经开始引入新工具,如滑雪广大观众的可访问性,导致创建利基新市场。

因此,需要创新,使旅游业的产品和服务更具吸引力,也需要更新的方式,使其合理化,以便至少赢得以适当方式定价的一些空间。

目的地对创新周期具有主观性,这一点从高山地区的例子中可以明显看出。即使在欧洲是第二个主要的休闲地区,而且自过去十年来阿尔卑斯山已经失去了很多市场份额之后(Paget et al, 2010)。它们现在不流行了。这是一个错误,因为它试图忘记这样一个事实:决定一个目的地的因素,既不是规划的地区权威,也不是目的地经理的品牌。它是由市场所做的决定来决定一个目的地是否具有被访问的价值。游客们进一步选择他们认为有吸引力的目的地,从而提供最大的效用。

The natural growth law is obeyed by innovation. Therefore, they have a life cycle which always takes bell curve forms. The cycle for innovation initiates with launch of product in markets followed through rapid phase of growth. This growth is also followed by sharp enhancement within turnovers prior to reaching the higher value in the maturity phase of a product. As it can be evident from the following example depicted in figure 3 related to downhill skiing, the tourism products innovation cycles are possible to come in complete circles. This sport is linked to tourism and is enjoying a boom in the recent years (Sipe and Testa, 2009). As a consequence of newer trends in demand and above all the monopoly position loss as a winter based sport, the downhill skiing adepts number has started declining even when suppliers have started introducing newer tools, such as snowboarding which has accessibility to a wide audience and has resulted in creation of niche new markets.
Therefore, innovations are required for making products and services of tourism which have more attractiveness, as are newer manners for rationalizing in a way for winning back at least some room for setting prices in an appropriate manner.
Destinations further have subjectivity to cycles of innovation, as it can be evident from the Alpine region example. Even after the fact that Europe is the second major area of recreation and much market share has been lost by the Alps since the past decade (Paget et al, 2010). They are no more in fashion now. This was a mistake as it seeks to forget the fact that what results in making a destination is not the regional authority of planning or even the destination manager’s brand. It is the decision taken by the market that chooses to decide whether a destination has the worth of being visited. Tourists further select destinations which they think has attractiveness and which results in offering maximum utility.

美国论文网:创新是旅游经济的主要驱动

可以描述创新成为经济增长引擎之前应该实现的状态。只有当经济框架内的条件包括有利条件、鼓励竞争条件,从而对现有结构进行革新或破坏时,创新才能蓬勃发展。一个自由开放的经济体能够满足这些条件(Sundbo et al ., 2015)。创新能够在自由化和放松管制的环境中适当发展。市场最自由的经济体是建立在竞争之上的,它具有通过国家无端干预和增加税收来保护个人财产权的能力。这些条件进一步有助于建立开放的边界,从而促进自由贸易。资本家在任何时候都有自由去寻找企业最赚钱的机会。创新还意味着以积极的方式寻找自然界中最有利可图的替代品。它还释放了新的增长潜力。最具创新性的市场经济是那些增长速度最稳定的经济体。与创新相关的经济意义的实证证据在美国国内得到了最好的说明。在这样一个市场,有可能获得重大回报。毫不奇怪,作为现代旅游业创新的重要组成部分,他们将“美国制造”列为标签。其他本质上值得注意的例子是枢纽和辐条系统的引入,以及拥有全球连锁酒店的民用航空低成本航空公司、美食标准化、租车业务、休闲公园以及使用信用卡,这些都在很大程度上解决了汇率问题。

It is possible to depict the state which should be fulfilled prior to innovation becoming economic growth engine. Innovations are able to flourish only when the conditions in economic framework involve favourability, encourage competitiveness and therefore create renovation or destruction of the structures existing. One economy which is free and open is able to meet with such conditions (Sundbo et al, 2015). Innovations are able to develop properly in environments with liberalization and deregulation. The economies with freest market possible are built over competition in situation, which has the ability of protecting rights of individual property through unwarranted interference of state and more taxation. These condition further help in creating borders that are open, and therefore trade of free nature. Capitalists have freedom at all time of looking at the most profitable opportunities of businesses. Innovation further implies to look in active manner for the alternatives that are most lucrative in nature. It also results in unleashing the potential for new growth. The most innovative market based economies are the ones enjoying growth rates that are steadiest. Empirical evident of innovation related economic significance is best illustrated within U.S. In this region, there are deregulated continental proportions of internal markets (Paget et al, 2010). In such a market, there is a potential to reap major rewards. Hardly, it is surprising that as essential component of the key modern tourism innovations, they stated the label “Made in USA”. Other essentially notable examples are hub and spokes system introduction and the civil aviation low cost carrier with global hotel chains, gastronomy standardization, business with renting a car, leisure parks and also using credit cards which has managed to do much for eliminating the problems of exchange rate.