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美国杨百翰大学论文代写:价格歧视

在没有价格歧视的情况下,利润最大化的产出价格组合是q和P *。然而,如果公司能够收取的价格,客户支付的金额等于其最大支付意愿,公司如果他的最大WTP电脑充电的同时另一个客户的Pmax如果那是他的最大支付意愿的客户收费电脑。请注意,这里的价格歧视的好处不是生产者。由于价格歧视,那些拥有WTP的顾客无法购买产品。然而,现在,每个拥有WTP的客户都可以使用它。
当每一个客户收取不同的价格时,就被称为第一级价格歧视或完全价格歧视。当价格取决于购买的数量时,那些购买较高商品的人收取的价格较低,这就叫做二级价格歧视。当不同的价格对不同的人群收费时,就被称为第三度价格歧视。
一级价格歧视实际上是不可能的。在某些情况下,当某些最低金额或购买数量有折扣时,二度价格歧视是可见的,例如,每购买第三条裤子就有50%的折扣属于这一类别。第三度价格歧视或许是最明显的价格歧视形式。在电影票定价中,第三度的价格歧视最为明显。以儿童、成人和老人不同的价格买到电影票就是这样一个例子。其他形式的价格歧视,在利益的情况下显而易见的是跨期定价和高峰负荷定价。跨期定价是价格歧视的一种形式,当价格高企时,最初是为了消除价格下跌后的弹性市场,以获取更具弹性的市场。在电影票定价中,当一部电影上映时,票价相当高。一旦该组在上映后立即以优先权观看影片,价格就会降低,以满足那些灵活需求的人。高峰负荷定价是另一种价格歧视,在周末,当娱乐需求量较高时,票价昂贵,而在平日需求低时,票价也很低。

美国杨百翰大学论文代写:价格歧视

The profit-maximizing output-price combination in the absence of price discrimination is Q* and P*. However, if the firm is able to charge prices such that the customer pays the exact amount which is equal to his maximum willingness to pay, the firm would charge a customer Pc if his maximum WTP is Pc at the same time charging another customer Pmax if that is his maximum WTP. Note that here; the advantage of price discrimination is not to the producer only. Due to price discrimination, customers who had WTP<P* were unable to purchase the product. However, now, every customer who has a WTP>MC can consume it.
The case when each of the customers is charged a different price, it is called the first degree of price discrimination or perfect price discrimination. When the price depends on the quantity purchased such that those buying higher amount of a given commodity are charged lesser price, it is called second degree price discrimination. When different prices are charged to different groups of people, it is called third degree price discrimination.
First degree price discrimination is a virtual impossibility. Second degree price discrimination is visible in several cases when there are discounts on certain minimum amount or quantity of purchase for example, an offer that allows a 50% off on every third trouser purchased falls under this category. Third degree price discrimination is perhaps the most evident form of price discrimination. In the case of movie ticket pricing, the third degree of price discrimination is most evident. Availability of movie tickets at different prices for children, adults and elders is one such example. Some other forms of price discrimination that are evident in the case of interest are inter-temporal pricing and peak load pricing. Inter-temporal pricing is the form of price discrimination when prices are charged high initially to exhaust the inelastic market after which the prices are lowered to capture the more elastic market. In movie ticket pricing, when a movie is released, the price of the tickets are quite high. Once that group which watches the movies on a priority basis immediately after its release is covered, the price is lowered so that those with flexible demand are also accommodated. Peak-load pricing is another type of price discrimination in which the tickets are costly during the weekends when the demand for entertainment avenues are high whereas the same is low during weekdays when the demand is low.