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resume代写:多元主义和新多元主义的基本概念

英国改革后的多元主义

然而,尊重社会中人的文化习俗和种族差异的基本概念已经得到接受。政府系统的建立是为了确保社会中的个人得到公平和平等的对待(Tunstall, 2003)。这一制度具有很强的程序公平正义意识。古典多元主义概念中所讨论的概念有许多实现问题。有人批评它含糊不清,缺乏具体内容。因此,多元主义概念的原初概念难以应用。有许多因素使多元主义的实施变得困难。这种改革后的多元主义是从古典多元主义的基本概念发展而来的。在这个概念中,尊重人的差异,并试图吸收不同的概念到群体中(汤斯托尔,2003)。这种形式在实现中被认为是幼稚的。白厅多元主义概念被认为是改革后的多元主义(Smith, 2006)。在这个系统中,如果一个系统的需求和要求没有被考虑,那么政府的另一个分支将考虑它们。这种形式的政治制度使用了多元主义的基本概念,只是改变了执行。这种改革后的多元主义被英国的治理体系所适应。

美国的新多元主义

新多元主义也运用了多元主义的基本概念。然而,它在考虑利益集团概念的同时,也考虑了不同条件下的因素。这种新多元主义理念被美国的治理体系所遵循(Domhoff, 1987)。林德布洛姆提出了新多元主义概念的基础。根据这一理论,在制定政策时要考虑几个战略商业组织和多个利益集团(Domhoff, 1987)。在这种多元化的形式中,各种组织及其理想得到了重视。这一概念具有一定的集体性。然而,它并不被认为是马克思主义。马克思主义一般不考虑生产力和个人主义。在这种新多元主义中,意识形态的本质是吸收个人主义和成长的概念(Kelso, 1978)。这些模型之间存在着明显的差异。这种模式在美国很普遍。美国当代许多政治意识形态是新多元主义理念的象征。这一模式也被认为更具活力,有利于国家经济的更容易发展。通过将许多变量积分到方程中,就得到了一个更全面的框架。正如前面所讨论的,经典方法一般不支持任何利益集团或议程。相反,它制定的政策有助于促进该国的经济增长和贸易。新多元主义的概念体现了一种强大的资本主义。它尊重市场经济,为国家的全面发展制定了许多规则。

resume代写:多元主义和新多元主义的基本概念

Nevertheless fundamental concepts of respecting the difference in cultural practices and ethnicity of people in societies have been accepted. Governmental systems are set up in order to ensure that individuals of the society are treated fairly and equally (Tunstall, 2003). There is a strong ideology of procedural fairness and justice in this system. Notions that are discussed in the concepts of classical pluralism have a lot of implementation issues. It has been critiqued to be vague and lacking specifics. Hence it is difficult to apply the original notion of pluralism concept. There are a number of factors that make implementation of pluralism to be difficult. This reformed pluralism was developed from the fundamental notions of classical pluralism. In this concept there is respecting of people’s difference and also tries to imbibe the different notions in to the groups (Tunstall, 2003). This form is considered naïve in implementation. Whitehall pluralism concept is considered to be reformed pluralism (Smith, 2006). In this system if the needs and requirements of one system are not considered they will be considered by another branch of the government. This form of political system uses the fundamental notion of pluralism and only has changed the implementation. This reformed pluralism is found adapted by the British system of governance.
Neo pluralism in America
Neo pluralism also uses the fundamental notions of pluralism. It however factors in different conditions while taking into account the notions of interest groups. This neo pluralism notion is followed by the American system of governance (Domhoff, 1987). Charles Lindblom proposed the fundamental of neo pluralism concept. According to this theory several strategic commercial organizations and multiple interest groups are considered while framing policy (Domhoff, 1987). In this pluralist forms there is importance given to the variety of organizations and their ideals. There are some collectivistic denotations in this concept. However it is not considered to be Marxism. Marxism generally does not consider productivity and individualism. In this neo pluralism the essence of the ideology is imbibing the notions of individualism and growth (Kelso, 1978). There is stark difference between these models. This model is practiced in America. Many of the modern contemporary political ideologies that are enacted in US are a symbol of neo pluralism concept. This model is also considered to be more dynamic and facilitates easier economic development in the nation. By integrating many variables into the equation there is a more holistic framework. As discussed earlier Classical approaches generally do not favour any interest groups or agendas. It rather develops policy that aids to more growth and trade in the country. There is a strong capitalism that is seen in this concept of neo pluralism. It respects the market economy and bases many rules for the overall development of the country.