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数学代写:心理社会发展理论

埃里克森提出了社会心理发展理论。在这篇文章中,他声称孩子们在18岁的时候就形成了他们与生俱来的性格(Crain, 2011)。他把这些个体的生命阶段分为八个阶段。在最初的阶段,孩子与世界建立起基本的信任。在此之后,孩子们形成了自主性和羞耻感(Crain, 2011)。在三到五岁之间,他们学会主动,也被社会成员的内疚(莱伊,1996)。在这个阶段,孩子应该学会带同同修和探索世界。如果父母把孩子的需要视为讨厌的东西,他们就会对自己的行为产生更多的负罪感。有必要在两者之间建立一种适当的平衡。在5岁到12岁之间,它转向了能力与自卑阶段。在这个阶段,孩子通过在同龄人中表现出来来发展他们的自信。从12岁到18岁,孩子发展出自我认同(莱伊1996)。除此之外,埃里克森还提出了其他四个阶段,但由于与具体案例研究的相关性,还没有对此进行讨论。在案例研究中,儿童处于能力与劣势阶段(Crain, 2011)。针对这一分析,学校安排的体育活动时段已被用来了解相关性。通过观察发现,某些孩子比其他人表现得更好,他们并不外向。研究发现,在这些案例中,孩子们对处理学校环境中的其他情况更有信心。

在孩子们努力保持运动能力的情况下,他们开始变得更加内向。研究发现,擅长运动的孩子在他们的同龄人中很受欢迎。他们有更好的能力率,因此他们的劣势也减少了。因此一些人开始发展内向性格。由此,我们理解了埃里克森理论的关联性。

数学代写:心理社会发展理论

Erikson proposed the psychosocial development theory. In this he professed that the children developed their innate character by the age of eighteen (Crain, 2011). He classified the stages of the individuals into eight life stages. In the initial stage the child develops basic trust with the world. Following to this the children develop autonomy vs. shame (Crain, 2011). Between the ages of three to five, they learn to take initiatives and are also guilted by the society members (Leys, 1996). In this stage, the child should learn to take initiates and explore the world. If the parents treat the child’s need as nuisance they start to develop more guilt for their actions. There is a need to develop a right balance between the two. Between the ages of five to twelve, it turns to competency vs. inferiority stage. In this stage the child develops their confidence by being able to perform in their peer groups. From the ages of twelve to eighteen, the child develops an identity of the self (Leys 1996). Apart from this there are four other stages that have been proposed by Erikson but it has not been discussed owing to the relevance to the particular case study. In the case study the children were in the competency vs. inferiority stages (Crain, 2011). For this analysis the sports activity session scheduled by the school has been used to understand the relevance. It was found from observations that certain children were able to perform better than others and they were not outgoing and extroverted. It was found in these cases that the children developed more confidence to deal with other situations in the school environment.
In the case where the children were struggling to remain competent in sports it was found that started to be more introverted. It was found that the children who were proficient in sports were celebrated in their peer groups. They had a better competency rate as a result their inferiority also decreased. So some individuals started to develop introversion as a result. From this the relevancy of Erikson theory was understood.