“净”这个词对于那些失业的人帮助工作通过schemebut谁会找到工作。如果这些影响arelarge那么就业并不增加,但用人单位只有一个unnecessarysubsidy。如果以这种方式看,似乎很多人放置在工作岗位,这个方案可能会误导人。这些论点已被新工党回答首席劳动力marketadvisor伦敦经济学院的理查德•莱亚德(Richard Layard)。他和他的合著者说这些反对把空缺职位的数量无定向——“块劳动力”谬论(莱亚德et al .,1991年,1994年)。最主要的,重要的是创建一个动态的劳动力市场。这种活力得到关注那些有效的劳动力市场,也就是说,那些已经失业了很长时间的人。
Although New Labour’s social and economic policies which have been clearly build on foundationslaid by previous Conservative governments, the thinking behind them isnot to simply extend neo-liberalism but these policies involve a muchmore active role for the state in enhancing competitiveness and increasinglabour supply. The Working Families, Tax Credit (WFTC) and its successor ‘working tax credit’, both aim to end the ‘unemployment trap’ by increasingin-work benefits so that total working income is relatively greater thanout-of-work benefits. The various ‘New Deals’ were financed by a windfall levy on the privatizedutilities, and involve using various benefits system as a way oflaunching a much more organized intervention in the labour market.
Thelargest programme, which is the New Deal for Young People, takes part insubsidized employment, training, voluntary work or an ‘environmental taskforce’ a condition of receiving benefits after six months of unemployment.The first option of New Deal for young people gives employers a subsidy to employ workers for a period of at least six months. The economic effects of this step are highly debated, with some people giving the argument thatsubsidized employment only leads to job substitution and overlooks ‘deadweight’. Job substitution takes place where a subsidized worker replaces the job of some other.
‘Deadweight’ is the term for all those unemployed people who have been helped into work through the schemebut who would have found work anyway. If these effects arelarge then employment is not increased, but the employer gets only an unnecessarysubsidy. If looked in this way, the seemingly large numbers of people placed in jobs by this scheme may be misleading. These arguments have been answered by New Labour’s chief labour marketadvisor, Richard Layard of the London School of Economics. He and his coauthors say that these objections regard the number of jobs available astatic – the ‘lump of labour’ fallacy (Layard et al., 1991, 1994). The main thing which matters isthe creation of a dynamic labour market. This dynamism is gained by focusing on those who are effectively out of the labour market, thatis, the people who have been unemployed for long time.