Assignment First


当美国和英国的多元主义模型进行比较时,这些多元主义概念所宣扬的是开放和透明。在这个系统中,个人和组织都有自治权。精英阶层在构建意识形态时不受支配,但他们有表达自己观点和看法的自由。这些系统的另一个特征是,它们寻求公众对各种政策实施的支持(Mouffe, 1999)。政府当局没有自主行事或作出独立决定的权利。它们需要公众的支持来执行系统中的各种政策。在这种模式中,所有派别和意识形态都受到重视。就某种特定的意识形态而言,它们之间存在着一种平等的权力制衡。这创造了一种平衡(汤斯托尔,2003)。应该指出的是,多元主义模式考虑到它可以对社会行使的实际权力。


人们发现,美国的民主制度是一种更加分散的方式。倾听和构建来自多个组织的规则非常重要。人们对集中管理方式感到恐惧。他们认为这种模式增加了政策执行的便利性。这也减少了这些国家的自治权。研究发现,英国国王乔治三世在位时,13个英属殖民地处于中央集权制度下。在这个体系中,人们对政府持谨慎态度,因此社会和政府之间缺乏信任(Tunstall, 2003)。美国的政治制度有四种主要的制度,这四种制度嵌入了美国的宪法和政治模式中。它们是联邦制,不同群体之间的权力分立,它有双边国会和两个同等权重的议院,最后还有两种不同的选举制度。美国所遵循的多元主义制度被认为是多数主义民主制度所确立的最高理想。多数主义是指在制定规则时,将大多数人的观点置于特定的背景之下。另一个被认为在政治上更合适的因素是,美国拥有不同的机构。司法和行政是两个独立的职能。就英国模式而言,它在一定程度上依赖于首相来监管司法委员会的某些方面。因此,美国的多元政府模式被认为比英国的治理模式更民主、更自由。对已经使用的新多元主义模型的批评是,它更适合商业部门,而其他服务部门在这个体系中没有平等的发言权。与英国的多元主义模式相比,新多元主义被认为是商业化的。


When US and UK pluralism models are compared, there is openness and transparency that has been propagated in these pluralism concepts. There is autonomy if the individuals and organizations in this system. There is no domination of the elite while framing ideologies however they are given latitude to express their views and regards. Another characteristic feature of these systems is they seek public support for implementation of various polices (Mouffe, 1999). Governmental authorities do not have the autonomy to conduct them or make independent decisions. They need public support for implementation of the various polices in the system. In this model there is importance given to all the factions and ideologies. In the case of a particular ideology there is an equal countervailing of power that exists between them. This creates a sort of equilibrium (Tunstall, 2003). It should be noted that the pluralist models take into account the actual power that it can wield on the societies.
The general criticism of this democratic pluralism political model that is common to both the countries is as follows. Due to the fact that there are multiple voices in the system the people are not able to reach consensus easily. Owing to which there is lack in implementation of the policies. When many people discuss their views and ideologies actual implementation becomes difficult in this process.
It has been found that the US system of democracy is a more decentralized approach. There is a lot of importance given to listening and framing rules from multiple organizations. There is fear among the people for a centralized approach of management. They believe that this model increases expediency in implementation of policies. This also reduces autonomy in the countries. It has been found that in United Kingdom when King George III was in power the 13 British colonies were under the centralized system. In this system the people were wary of the government and due to which there was lack of trust between the societies and government (Tunstall, 2003). American political system has four main systems that are embedded into its constitution and in its political model. They are federalism, separation of powers between the different groups, it has bilateral Congress with two chambers of equal weightage and finally there are two different kinds of electoral systems. This system of pluralism that is followed in America is considered to be the highest ideals set by the majoritarian system of democracy. Majoritarian is the system where the views of the major population are held in context while framing the rules. Another factor that is considered to be more politically suitable is that America has distinct bodies. Judiciary and executive are two separate functions. In the case of UK model there is some dependence on the Prime Minister to regulate certain aspects of the judiciary committee. Owing to which the pluralist governmental model in America is considered to be more democratic and liberal than the UK governance. Critique of the Neo pluralism model that has been used is that it is more aligned to suit the business sectors while other service sectors do not have equal voice in this system. Neo pluralism is considered commercialized when compared to the UK model of pluralism.