Assignment First



《维也纳国际老龄问题行动计划》和《联合国老年人原则》又制订了一些关于年龄歧视的原则。罗伯特·N·巴特勒(Robert N Butler)就是这样一位有影响力的人,他在70年代早期发表了一本关于老年患者的著作,解释了老年患者的负面刻板印象,以及这种刻板印象对整个医疗保健领域的影响(Higashi, 2012)。他发现,年龄歧视与种族主义或性别歧视之间存在类似的关系。卫生保健配给制是他致力于修订政策和模式的领域。

古典自由主义还强调人的个人自由,强调人在法律下的理性与平等。新自由主义对个人自立的关注,结合了道德保守主义和社会保守主义,已经成为一项政府政策。巴特勒,如上所述,认为年龄歧视是一个领域的偏见,导致年龄骚扰和发展敌对环境的医疗保健部分(Lindau, 2007)。2006年,反年龄歧视工作组在国际长寿中心编写了一份关于美国年龄歧视的报告,其中详细列出了与医疗保健部门有关的带有年龄偏见的术语。


Ontario Human Rights Commission has said in its legal statement that ageism cases are differently treated when compared to the discrimination cases. Moral opprobrium is lacked in age discrimination. The Ontario Human Rights Code (OHRC) also highlights the prohibition of discrimination followed by harassment on the grounds of age. Section 15 of OHRC states that preferential treatment is permitted for those who are of sixty five years of age or over. As a result, they are eligible to make use of the government relief opportunities.

Some more ageism principles were developed by Vienna International plan of action on ageing and also United Nations principles for older persons. Robert N Butler was one such influential person who published a work on the early seventies to explain the negative stereotyping of senior patients and the way it has affected the healthcare segment on the whole (Higashi, 2012). He found that there is an analogous relationship between ageism and racism or sexism. Health care rationing approach is the area where he worked on to revise the policies and models.

Classical liberalism also stresses the individual freedom of people and the need for human rationality and equality under law. The focus of neo liberal on self reliance of individuals is already a government policy as it combines the moral and social conservatism. Butler, as mentioned above, has regarded ageism as an area of bigotry that leads to age harassment and development of hostile environment in the health care segment (Lindau, 2007). In the year 2006, a report on ageism in America has been prepared at international longevity center by anti ageism task force where a list of age biased terms have been detailed with respect to the healthcare segment.