Assignment First

本篇作文代写-文化和商业道德讲了有两种方法被提出,目的是将组织文化塑造成合乎伦理的目标:“第一种也是最受欢迎的方法是围绕伦理价值创造一种统一的企业文化[……]。第二种主张促进民族和种族文化以及专业和职业亚文化组织内的共存和多样性”(Lozano, 1998)。文化被认为是商业道德的基础。可以看出,一个国家的文化会对管理者的道德行为产生直接的影响。当管理者的道德行为受其自身文化的支配时,往往也会改变管理者对文化的认知以及对下属道德的影响。它可以对组织的商业道德如何发展以及如何标准化和实施产生重大影响。本篇作文代写文章由美国第一论文 Assignment First辅导网整理,供大家参考阅读。

Culture as the Basis for Business Ethics

“Two approaches have been proposed with the aim of moulding organizational culture towards ethical ends: “the first and most popular is the approach of creating a unitary corporate culture around ethical values […]. The second advocates fosters the co-existence and diversity within the organization of national and racial cultures as well as professional and occupational sub-cultures” (Lozano, 1998). Culture is considered as the basis for business ethics. It is observed that culture of a country will have a direct impact on the ethical behavior of the manager. Where the ethical behavior of the manager is governed by their own culture, then it also tends to change how they perceive culture and influence on ethics of their subordinates. It can have a major infleunc on how business ethic for the organization is developed and how they are standardized and implemented.

The culture of a country is often directly related to the ethical behavior of the manager which behavior can be defined and understood by exhibition in two ways. Primarily, the manager would present an over action where a public or a corporate statement is made and this leads to understanding of managerial percpection on ethics based on hiw culture. Secondly, culture is exhibited by forms of collective behavior shown by the employees of the organization where the manager works (Carroll, 2000; Wood, 1991). As a basis for business ethics, the demonstration of managerial perception of ethics based on the country and cultural influence can at the least be understood by these form of exhibits. However, understanding culture itself as having an impact on ethics in a theoretical sense is still difficult. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions present a way to understand culture. Values and patterns of thinking are understood under different dimensions. This helps in understanding how people behave when faced with an ethical dilemma. It is hence is useful in understanding how managerial perception varies based on their culture.

Schein (1985) in a similar way presents how culture could be understood at three different levels serving a purpose towards understanding reasoning for ethics. Firstly, culture is understood by way of the artifacts generated, which are the public works, the works of art and other major decision making for everybody to see. Secondly, there is a level where culture is used as a guidance for behavior of the individual. Here culture is understood as how the individual should behave or operate (Schein, 1985). For instance, in Japan, there is an elevation in politeness. Where others are less polite then Japanese culture viewits with disdain. Now these are guidance systems that are useful for guiding managers towards understanding how they can help employees. In ethical guidance mnagers in an understanding of these differences are able to hold training sessions and more for their employees. The managemenet standardization of ethical decision making by itself is affected by their own cultural background as well. Howveer an awareness of different cultures and infleunces helps them balance and moderate (Ofori, 2009). Finally, the third hidden level in cuture and influence is the values and assumptions that one makes in daily life. People in some cultures perceive people as being essentially good. In collectvistic cultures such as China, the elements of trust, guanxi and interconnectedness are given special understanding. However, not all cultures would given the same amount of optimistic outlook on the individual. Some cultures view individuals more pessimistically, an attitude towards people based on their own goodwill would be necessary for the manager here (Honeycutt et al, 1995; Armstrong and Sweeney, 1994).

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